February 28, 2019

About Lan, Man and Wan

Here we explain about Lan,Man and Wan-

Types of Network on the basis of size- On the basis of size network are three types LAN,MAN and WAN . LAN and WAN are original networks while MAN and WLAN gradually emerged over times technology evolution-  LANs-WANs-MANs-WLANs.
 Note- LAN full name local area network, MAN full name Metropolitan area network, WLAN full name wireless local area network.                     
LAN( local area network): This network is generally available for college campus, small town, an office buildings etc. Due to small size network and availability in limited region is called local area network.  

LAN are mainly classified into two types first peer-to-peer network and other is Clint server network

(I)  Peer-to-Peer Network: This network system allows user's to share files or data from one computer to another computer while this does not have any  centralized server or hierarchy among the computers. All computer network themselves  manage securities and administration. 

(II) Client-server Network: Working process of this network is same as peer-to-peer but difference is that there is at least one computer works as a server. The server holds files or data for sharing and generally controls the network. 

MAN(metropolitan area network): This network is useful for wider range such as city, large town etc. Generally where LAN can't rechargeable MAN works there but not all over the world, it is available for larger range than LAN range so it is called metropolitan area network. 

WAN(wide area network): This network covers all over the world that is it covers whole word. This is uses by larger sectors such as banking , industrial, share market etc. Through WAN we can access the informations in seconds.

 WANs types- Public network, Private network, wireless network. 

Public Network: The network which is uses by telecommunication authorities and is available to individual or organization who subscribe it. Example- Integrated service digital networks, Public switched data network, public switched telephone network etc.

 Private Network: In this network owners have full freedom to use the network in any way they want. They can use network to carry large data with high speed transmission. 

Wireless Network: It is most important technology of internet. Using this technology you can use computer resources very easily. Now-a-days many  areas where wireless router or antenna are setup to use or accesse Bluetooth, Wi-Fi as a connector. 

Here we given about advantages and disadvantages of Client-server network which above we discuss in written format -

Advantage- client server is centralized, all component work together, easily accessible for multiple platforms, new technology easily associate with system.
  Disadvantages- maintenance of network is difficult, dependency is low if server goes down then difficult to operate it.  

Advantages and Disadvantages of peer-to-peer network-
 Advantage- Easily setup with operating system that is only need to reconfigured for peer -to- peer operations.
 Disadvantage- whole system is decentralized, no security on client-server. 

WLAN: Wireless local area network, it is wireless technology, it is simple ,cost-effective, easily maintainable.

Advantages and Disadvantages of wireless LAN-  
Advantage- offers maximum fliexibility and mobility, less cost to install and maintain compare to a cable network, cables no uses so users don't need to drill, users from physically attached to a network.          Disadvantage- sometimes difficulties in signal qualities, low coverage area.                                                                                                                                                              

February 25, 2019

NBFCs OR non-banking financial companies

What are the non-banking financial companies ? 

 Non-Banking Financial Companies (NBFCs):- The company which is registered under the companies act 1956 that provide banking services are called Non-Banking Financial Companies.  NBFCs can not accept demand deposits,   NBFCs can not issue cheques drawn on itself, deposit insurance facility is not available for NBFCs, NBFCs can not offer interest rate  higher than the limit prescribed by Reserve Bank of India.  

 NBFCs position in Financial Sector:-They are pioneers to financing auto ( truck, tracter, bike etc)loans ,    pioneer in giving gold loans, gives financial services where banks are absent, responsible for promoting microfinance business, for funding support depends on banks.  

Classification of Non banking financial companies :- Asset Finance Company,  Micro Finance Institutions, Loan Company, Core Investment Company, Infrastructure Debt Company, Infrastructure Finance Company, Investment Company, Hire purchase Company, Mutual Fund Company, Chit Fund Company, Equipment Leasing Company, Nidhi Company etc.  

In another way NBFCs are classified into two types (I) Deposit taking and (II) Non deposit taking. 

NBFCs follows RBI Norms:- minimum net owned fund on the regular basis which is implemented by RBI, According to RBI norms NBFCs are limited to accept deposit from the public, Deposit accepted minimum 12 months and maximum five years. 

RBI Simplifies the Registration Process for New NBFCs:- There would be two different types of applications for non deposit taking NBFCs based on Sources of Funds and Customer Interface one of them given below. 
Type I- The processing of cases for Type I NBFC Non Deposit taking Applicants would be on fast track mode. As these companies will not have access to public fund and will not have customer interface, they will be subjected to less intensive scrutiny.      
These companies will be prohibited from accessing public funds and having customer interface. In case these companies intend to avail public fund or intend to have customer interface in the future, they are required to take approval from RBI.                                                                                   

Types of OSI Layers model or Types of Communication in a protocol.

Types of OSI model-
 (1) Application Layer: (i) Gives detail  real work which is done in application.   (ii) implements operation of file system.                                             
  (2) Presentation Layer : (i)Gives detail information  how floating-point number can be exchange between host with different formats.    (ii) Gives detail how syntax of data is transferred.                                        

 (3) Session Layer: (i) Gives detail the Organization of data sequences larger than the packets manage by lower layers.  (ii) Gives detail how request and reply packets are paired in a remote procedure call.                               
    (4) Transport Layer: (i) Tells about the quality and nature of a data delivery.    (ii) Tells about how retransmissions will be used to ensure data delivery. 

(5) Network Layer: (i) Gives detail how a series of exchanges over various data links can deliver data between any two nodes in a network. (ii) Defines the routing and addressing structure of the internet.  
   (6) Data Link Layer: (i) Gives detail the logical organization of data bits transmitted on a particular medium.  (ii) Defines the addressing , framing and check summing of Ethernet packets.                                            
   (7) Physical Layer: (i ) Defines  the size of Ethernet coaxial cable , the type of BNC(Bayonet Neill-Concelman) connector used and the termination method.   (ii) Gives information of physical properties of the various communication media, the electronic properties and interpretation of the exchange signals.                                              

February 23, 2019

Network topology and its types

What is Network Topology ? 
Network Topology is the arrangement of computers and cable links in a LAN(local area network).   

 Network Topology  types:-

(I) Point-to-point topology: it is usually a part of a WAN(wide area network) and direct connection between two computers.   

(II) Bus Network Topology: A bus network is a network topology in which computers are connected through a shared communications line called a bus. Example- motherboard.                                   
 
(III) Star Topology: Star networks are one of the most common computer network topologies in which each computer is directly connected to the centralized hub or a switch. In this way , when computer  'A' sends a data packet for computer B , C and D the data flows through the switch to which both computers A,B,C and D are connected.            

(IV) Token ring or Ring Topology: it is similar to star topology the only difference here is that it creates ring that permits transfer of data from one computer to another computer in a ring or circle. a taken network will pass information based on token system.                                            

   (V) Tree Topology: it is combination of characteristics of linear bus and star topologies. It is consists of groups of stars configured workstations connected to a linear bus backbone cable. Tree topologies allow for the expansion of an existing network with ease.                   
(VI)Mesh Topology: it is fully connected or complete topology in which  there is direct link between all pairs of nodes, every node connected to every other node fast reliable no hub or switch or bus to fail if one device goes down, it is only nodes affected expensive every node must be wired to every other node  difficult to add nodes,there at least two nodes with two or more paths between them.                                                        
 Advantages and Disadvantages of Topology:-

Bus Topology:advantage- available in low cost, good for local area network.  disadvantage- have low security, efficiency becomes low when more devices connected.  
 
  Star Topology: advantage- due to isolation prevents failure of central network, The central device can handle very high utilization by only one that is central device without affecting other device. disadvantage- high cost, limited capacity of nodes, dependency on central device if central device fails then whole network affected.                         

  Ring Topology:-advantage- to manage connectivity between computers does not requires central nodes, easily finds faults due to point-to-point linked configuration, depends on order or sequence of network every device has opportunity to transmit network. disadvantage-delay in communication, any device changes affects whole network, difficult to troubleshoot.               

 Tree Topology:-advantage- supported by many hardware and software companies. disadvantage- if one cable segments breakdown then entire network affected.     

 Mesh Topology:-advantage- it is not affected by if single device failed, high traffic due to interconnection of all devices. disadvantage- highly expensive, high maintenance necessary.                                        

February 22, 2019

Microsoft-word short key

 Here we given Microsoft words short keys:-
(1)Creating a new document- CTRL + N.
(2) Saving a new document- CTRL+ S 
(3) Closing the active document- CTRL+W  (4) Exist the Microsoft word- ALT+ F4 
(5) Opening an existing document- CTRL+O
(6) To select one character to the right- SHIFT + right arrow
(7) To select one character to left- SHIFT+ left arrow
(8) To select to the beginning of line- SHIFT+ home 
(9)  To select to the end of line- SHIFT+ end (10) To select to the beginning of document- CTRL + SHIFT + home 
(11) To select to the end of the document- CTRL+ SHIFT+ end 
(12) Undo- CTRL+Z 
(13) Redo- CTRL+Y  
(14) Moving text- CTRL+X 
(15) Paste- CTRL+V 
(16) Copying text- CTRL+C 
(17) Applying the bold style- CTRL+B 
(18) Applying the italic style- CTRL+I  
(19) Underlying text- CTRL+U 
(20) To align text left margin- CTRL+L  
(21) To align text in center that is  within your left and right margin- CTRL+ E 
(22) To align text in right margin- CTRL+R (23) Align text to both the left and right margin, adding extra space between the words that is Justify- CTRL+ J 
(24) Entering text into table- CTRL+ tab (25) Webpages and hyperlink- CTRL+K. (26) Printing of document- CTRL+ P 
(27) Open the window in the preference of Font- CTRL+ D 
(28) To change Font- CTRL+SHIFT+ F 
(29) To help- F1 
(30) Spellings check- F7 
(31) To insert current time- SHIFT+ALT+T (32) To insert current date- SHIFT+ALT+D (33) Case Change (upper,lower,title, sentence, toggle)- Shift+F3 
(34) Paste- Shift+insert 
(35) Single line spacing- CTRL+1 
(36) Select word- double click. 
(37) Select line or paragraph- Triple click. (38) Save- Shift+ F12 
(39) Save as- F12 
(40) Find and replace- F5                                                                                                 

Money Market

Definition and structure of money market- 

Money Market: Money market is the market where short term funds are borrowed and lend, this short term stands for one-day up to 364-day.  Money market is regulated by Reserve Bank of India.                                                                                          
Structure of money market- Money market are mainly two types (I) organized and (II) unorganized         organized money market follows rules and regulations while unorganized does not follows rules and regulations of reserve bank of India. Example of 

Organized money markets- Banks, Non-banking financial companies (NBFCs), Submoney market Submoney market examples: Call money, Commercial paper, Treasury bills, Certificate of depost. 

Unorganized money market: indegenious lenders, NBFCs.   NBFCs: non banking financial companies registered under companies act 1956. NBFCs do not accept demand deposit they accept only term deposit. NBFCs don't maintain cash reserve ratio they maintain statuary liquidity ratio.          

 What is call money market? call money market is the market for very short term lending and borrowing . this short term stands for  generally one-day.  1 day - call money, 2 up to 14 days- Notice money, 15 up to 364 days- Term money . It is completely interbank market both borrows and lender are required to have current account with reserve bank of India interest rate charges in this market known as interbank offer rate.           
  Money market instruments: this instruments provide the tools by which  one can operate in the money market.  Example- Treasury bills, Commercial paper, Certificate of deposit, repurchase agreement and banker's acceptance.

 Banker's Acceptance: it is like a short term investment plan initiated by non financial company or firm, backed by a guarantee from the banks. It is like bill of exchange stating about buyer's promise to pay to the seller a certain specified amount at a certain date and the bank guarantees that the buyer will pay the seller at a future date.   These securities comes with maturities between 30 and 180 days most commonly 90 days.                                       

February 21, 2019

File extension

Here we given some important file extension name-

(1) .xlsx,.xls- Microsoft excel.                                
(2)  .ppt- Microsoft PowerPoint.    

(3) .docx,.doc- text document.      

(4)  .jpg,.jpeg- Joint image.             

(5) .zip- extended file.                      

(6) .exe- executable file.                   

(7) .mdb- data base.                          

(8)  .tmp- temporary file.                 

(9) .pdf- portable document file. 

(10).xml- extensible markup language.                                           

(11) .3gp- the most common video format for cell phones.                    

(12) .bak- backup file.                   

(13) .dat- data file.                           

(14) .txt- plain text file.                  

(15) .mpg- movie file.                     

(16) .tif- tagged image file.            

(17) .bmp- bitmap.                         

(18) .xhtml- extensible hypertext markup language.                            

(19) .asp,.aspx- Microsoft active service page.                                      

(20) .pdb- programmable data file. 

(21) .drv- device driver file .           

(22) .dbs- outlook express email folders.                                              

(23) .sys- system file.                     

(24) .rar- WinZip file.                       

(25) .win- win far file.                     

(26) .html- hypertext markup language .                                          

(27) .gif- graphics interchange format.                                               

(28) .rm- real media.                       

(29) .flv- flash video.                      

(30) .wma- windows media video.                 Note: extension name began with dot (.) And all letter should become small. You can find basic knowledge for particular extension using search option of internet.                 

February 20, 2019

Hardware ,computer formation tools and computer memory with their types,

Here we difine Hardware and explain about types of Hardwar:- 

Hardware Definition: The Physical components of a computer which can be touched and seen are called hardware.       
   Types of Hardware: hardware are four types- Input, Output, Storage and Processing device.                
 
  (I) Input Device: The input devices are used to feed the instructions into the computer. Example- BCR,OMR,OCR ,MICR, Keyboard, Mouse, Scanner, Trackball, Joystick,Light pen,Microphone, etc.  BCR Full name Bar Code Reader,  OCR Full name Optical character reader,OMR Full name Optical mark reader, MICR Full name Magnetic ink character recognition.                      

(II) Output Device : The result which is obtained after processing is called output devices. Example-Printer,Monitor, Ploter,Projector, Speaker etc.                                  
    
(III) Storage Device: The devices which stored or hold data or instructions  when devices worked on or not called output device . Example- RAM,ROM,Hard Disk, Floppy Disk , CD-ROM,Conpact Disk, Universal serial Bus,Digital Video Disk etc.                          
  
(IV) Processing Device: Computer performs useful operations by manipulating the data in many ways. This manipulation is processing and used devices for this processing is called processing devices. Processing devices includes calculation, comparisons and decisions.    Example-  CPU Full name central processing unit,     Parts of Central processing unit- Arithmetic and logic unit, Control unit and Memory unit.                                
 
  Computer formation Tools: computer formation tools are two types first is Hardware and second is Software. 

(I) Hardware: The Physical tools required to use,create, manipulate and store electronic data is called hardware.                         
 
  (II) Software: The instruction that is Computerised; operate a computer manipulate the data and execute particular task or functions is called software.                                          
  We are given following hardware tools(i) Central Processing Unit (CPU): CPU is known as the brain of computer. This is single or more than one chip located at the heart (motherboard) of a computer that enable it to process data is called processor. It is consists of two parts first Arithmetic Logic Unit and Second is Control Unit. 
 (I)  Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU): There are two types of operation perform by ALU - arithmetic and logical  here arithmetic means addition, subtraction, multiplication and division type operations While Logical means comparing one data to another data that means first data is greater than,less than or equal to other data.

 (II) Control Unit (CU): The unit which control computer system  directs the movement of electronic signals between the ALU and memory, directs control signals between the input/output devices and CPU provide coordination between tools of a computer is called Control Unit. (ii) Memory: The area where computer system holds data waiting to be processed is called Memory . It is mainly two type first primary and second is Secondary memory.              (I) Primary Memory:  This memory communicates directly with the central processing unit. It is made up of silicon chips. It is two type (a) RAM and (b) ROM. Random access memory (RAM) is volatile memory while Read Only Memory (ROM) is permanent Memory.         (II) Secondary Memory: Mainly there are three types of secondary storage devices- hard disk,floppy disk and optical disk.                                    

Hard Disk: It is magnetic disk on which can be stored computer data. Hard disk has high capacity and faster than floppy disks. It is usually consists of several hard platters. A single platter requires two read/write head, all the read/write heads are touched to a single access arm so that they cannot move freely. The number of tracks that cuts across all platter is called cylinder.           
 
Floppy Disk: this is a soft magnetic disk .  it is easily portable from one place to another. This disk is slower to access than hard disk and has less storage capacity.            
 
  Optical Disk: An optical disc drive is a disk drive (the device used to read or write data from the disk is called disk drive)  that uses laser light near light spectrum as part of the process of writing or reading data to or from optical discs. The common types of optical discs is Compact Discs (CD) and Digital Versatile Disks (DVD).       
 
 Input Devices : The devices that are used to enter information into the computer is called input devices (Such as keyboard, mouse, Joystick, track ball and scanner).       
 
  Keyboard: keyboard is a basic device through which you can input information into computer. It is easy to use keyboard because most of them QWERTY typewriter setup.  Some keyboard has control keys like Home, End, Escape (ESC),Control (CTRL),Insert, Page Down, Page up, Delete and Alternative (ALT) that let you carry out these simple tasks with just one click.                               
Mouse : It is a handheld pointing device for computers, involving a small tools fitted with one or more buttons and shaped to sit naturally under the hand. 2D motion of mouse is typically translated into the motion of a cursor on the display. Cursor is a small blinking arrow displayed on the computer screen.                   
 Joystick: This device help playing computer games . joystick consists of a handle that can be pointed in different directions. It can be used to control the movement of tools or objects displayed on the computer screen.                                          
 Track Ball: It is similar to upside-down design of the mouse. To move pointer , you rotate the ball with your fingers,thumb or the palm of your hand. Users can spin the ball in different direction to control the screen movement.                    

Scanner: It is an external device to record data on to the computer . The data can include book pages, photographs and other images already on a piece of paper. It is not only copy machine but also transmitted digital images into the computer.                                 

    Output Devices: The devices that are used to the data to the user or allow information to represent to the user either in the form of hard copy or soft copy is called output devices (such as printer, monitor, plotter, projector and speaker).           
  
 Printer: A printer is an output device that prints text , spread sheet,images on the paper. Printed data or information, which exists physically is known as hard copy .  Quality of printer is measured in dot per inch.  Printer are mainly two types first Impact and other is Non impact .Impact Printer(dot matrix) Non impact printer (inkjet printer, laser printer, plotter).                      
 
   Plotter: Plotter are a large scale printer that are highly accurate at reproducing line drawing.     

Projector: It is uses for presentations. Due to containing lens it is used to flash the film to an object.                                        
Speaker: it is used to provide sound as output , used in multimedia to listen music or to play sound giving games.                                    
  Computer Memory: Basically computer has two types of memory one is Primary or internal or main memory and other is secondary or auxiliary memory.                    
 
 Primary Memory: Primary memory is the memory used by the computer's processor to run its program, application and operating system. Primary are two types RAM and ROM.                                      
   Here we given types of RAM (random access memory) and ROM (read only memory).                  
   Types of RAM: SRAM,DRAM,SDRAM etc.       
    Types of ROM: PROM,EPROM,EEPROM.  Secondary (auxiliary) memory: This is nonvolatile(permanent) memory that means this type of memory holds data even if power off. Example of secondary memory: Floppy disks, Hard disk, Compact disk, CD-ROM, Optical disk, DVD,USB etc. Full name of USB- Universal serial Bus. Full name of DVD- Digital Video Disk. Full name of CD-ROM- Compact Disk Read Only Memory .  Full name of EEPROM- Electrically Erasable Programmable Read only Memory. Full name of EPROM- Erasable Programmable Read Only memory. Full name of SDRAM- Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory. Full name of DRAM- Dynamic Random Access Memory. Full name of SRAM- Static Random Access Memory.                                   
 Memory Units: 1 Byte=8 Bits. 1 Kilo Byte(KB)=1024 Bytes. 1 Mega Byte(MB)=1024 KB. 1 Giga Byte(GB)=1024 MB. 1 Tera Byte(TB)=1024 GB. 1 Peta Byte(PB)=1024 GB. 1 Exam Byte(EB)= 1024 PB. Note: 1 Nibble= 4 Bytes.                                       Computer Speed Units: 1 Kilo Hertz=10,000 Hertz. 1 Mega Hertz= 10,000 Kilo Hertz. 1 Giga Hertz= 10,000 Mega Hertz. 1 Tera Hertz= 10,000 Giga Hertz. 1 Peta Hertz=10,000 Tera Hertz. 1 Exa Hertz =10,000 Peta Hertz.  Note: one Mega= 1Million(10Lakh). One Giga= 1 Billion (1 Arab)                 

Computer history

History of computer or Development of computer
(1) Abacus: it was the first calculating device that developed about three to four years ago. It is a machanical device. Abacus consists of 8 or 10 horizontal rods attached to a wooden frame. This device can calculate at least 11 digit numbers fast.

 (2) Napier's Bones: In 1617 Jhon Napier developed a calculating device known as Napier's Bones. He used a set of ten rods called bones on which written from 0 to 9 table. 

(3) Slide Rule: it is also developed by John Napier's in 1617  to multiply, Davison, fi nd square root instantly using Logarithm. It is also made by more simple by mathematician viliam Autrad. 

(4) Pascal's Calculator: Developed by Blaze Pascal in 1642  this is also called adding machine.
(5) Mechanical Calculator of Leibnitz: On the basis of improvement in pascal calculator Leibnitz developed a comlex machine Which can add, subtract as well as able to device. This machine was fast calculating machine. 

(6) Difference and analytic engine of Charles Babbage: Charles Babbage is known as father of modern computers, in polynomial function the difference nearly constant so this machine is called difference engine. encouraged by success of difference engine Charles Babbage made another machine in 1871 called analytic engine this have five parts- input, store,mil(for arithmetic operation), control and output.

 (7) Punched Card Machine: Punched card first time made by Joseph marry Jacard in 1801,    Something more-  Napier's Bones related to Scotland,   Vilims Autrat related to Jarmani, Pascal related to France, Leibnitz related to Jarmani, Joseph marry Jacard related to Jarmani, Mark-I computer comes in 1943,  Atana sofe Berry computer comes in 1942,ENIAC comes in 1946, LEO comes in 1951, UNIVAC-I comes in 1951.                                                                           

February 18, 2019

Inflation and types of inflation

Here we explain about inflation and its types-

 Inflation: inflation is the sustained increased in the general price level of goods and services in an economy over the period of time. In inflation demand increases, supply decreases, flow of money increases, value of money decreases, prices increases. 

Stages of inflation:  Creeping (0 to 3)% , Walking (3 to 7)%, Tortling (6 to 7)%, Running (7 to 10)%, Galloping (10 to 20)%, Hyperinflation ( more than 20 %).
 
 Types of Inflation:  

Demand Pull Inflation: To much money buy to few goods- When the demand of goods and services is going faster than supply then prices will increases this generally happen.

Cost Push inflation: When Companies cost go up due to increase the prices of Raw material wages or any other factor they need to increase prices to maintain their profit margin. 

Measurement of inflation:  inflation= (current year prices -bayear prices)×100÷base year price .  WPI- base year 2004-5,  number of articles- 676.   CPI: base year 2011-12,  number of article -1200+.  Full name wpi- wholesale price index.     Full name of cpi- consumer price index. 

Term Related to Inflation: 

Deflation: Just opposite situation of inflation- demand decreases, flow of money decreases, supply of money increases, value of money increases, prices decreases.  

Disinflation: A slowing in the rate of prices of inflation is called disinflation. 

 Skew inflation: combination of inflation and deflation .    

Stagflation: it is combination of rassison and unemployment .  

Core Inflation: When inflation happened it core sector economy due to this overall economy get affected.  Here we given all sector of core sector-  Coal,crude oil, natural gas,refinery products, Fertilizer, Cement, steel,electricity. 

Bottleneck Inflation: When supply falls rapidly and the demand remain at the same level .   

 Agflation: inflation in agricultural field.

Hyperinflation: out of control inflation.                                      

Monetary Policy And structure of RBI

Monetary Policy: The Reserve Bank of India issues monetary policy annually to control money supply in the economy and flow of credit by banks to control inflation CRR,Bank rate,SLR,Repo rate,Reverse repo rate,Open market operation and Market stabilization scheme are the tools of  Monetary policy. Monetary policy is the process by which central bank controls (i) supply of money (ii) Availability of money (iii) Rate of interest.  To control inflation, deflation and liquidity in market, the policy is used by RBI is known as Monterey policy.     

Tools of Monetary Policy: (I) Direct  (II) Indirect rule. 

(I) Direct Rule: CRR,SLR and Refinance of facilities. 

(II) Indirect Rule: LAF,Bank Rate, MSF,OMO,MSS and Term Repo .                                                                              
Direct rule
CRR: Full name cash reserve ratio, According to section 42(I) RBI act 1934, all scheduled bank have to keep a certain amount of their NDTL(net demand and time liability) in the form of cash with RBI is known as CRR.  Interest is not taken or given on this amount .    No minimum and maximum limit.   Rate is maintain on daily basis.   Present CRR is 4 percent.
 SLR: Full name Statutory liquidity Ratio, according to section24 ( 2(A) ) Banking Regulation act 1943, all banking companies bank plus NBFCs have to keep certain amount of their NDTL(net demand and time liability) in form of cash, gold and government securities is known as SLR. Interest rate not given , no minimum limit but maximum limit 40 percent.  
Refinance Facility: Sector specific refinance facility, Regional Rural Bank Refinance by NABARD.                                                           
 Indirect Rule-
 LAF: Full name Liquidity adjustment Facility, First implemented in year 2000,  it allows banks to borrow money through repurchase agreements. LAF is used to help banks in adjusting the day to day mismatches in liquidity. It is combination of repo and reverse repo rates .  
Bank Rate: it is defined in section 49 of RBI Act 1934, A rate of interest at which RBI provides long term loan to commercial bank is known as Bank Rate but at present bank rate is rate of interest at which RBI Rediscounts the bill and provide loan to government of India. 
MSF: Full name Marginal Standing Facility, this was introduced by RBI in 9 May 2011,  MSF is the window for commercial bank to govern from RBI in emergency situation interbank liquidity dries of completely. Limit 2 percent completion NDTL, minimum amount 1Cr and multiple thereafter.  This limit 2 percent should be request between 3:30-4:30 pm electrically under negotiable dealing system.  This loan is provided for only 1 day,  if any takes this loan for Friday it can repay it on Monday with same interest . 
OMO: Full name open market operation , it is introduced in 2002, seles and purchases of government securities to RBI control liquidity in the market is called open market operation.
 MSS: Full name Market Stabilisation Scheme, it is introduced in April 2004, to control Money comes from foreign. 
Term Repo:- Term Repo under LAF(Liquidity Adjustment Facility) is for 14 day and 7 day. It is introduce for seduled Commercial bank other than regional rural bank and in addition to the adjusting Liability add money market scheme. It is conducted on core banking solution (E-kubare) platform through electronic bidding. The total amount of liquidity injected is limited to  0.75 percent of NDTL(net demand and time liability) of the banking system. Auction conducted on every reporting Friday and non-rporting Friday for remaining unsubscribed. Minimum bid amount rupees 1 Cr and multiple there of conducted on Friday between 2:30 to 3:00 PM Reporting Friday: IInd and IVth Friday of any month (14 day). Non-Reporting Friday: Ist and IIIrd Friday of any month (7day).   
Repo Rate : Implemented in 1992,it is the rate at which RBI lends of commercial banks as terms loan by keeping their securities with RBI to meet their repo-repurchase or short term needs. 
Reverse Repo Rate: Introduced in November 1996,it is the process of borrowing money from banks by RBI keeping its securities as collateral with banks is known as reverse repo and interest paid by RBI to banks on such borrowing is known as reverse repo rate.  

Above methods of controlling money flow is known as Quantitative credit control method. Now Qualitative credit control method given below,  it is introduced in year 1956.   Qualitative credit control method: Regulation of consumer credit, Regulation of marginal Requirement, Credit Rationing, Moral Suasion, Direct Action etc.           
Moral Suasion - This is an informal method of monetary control. The RBI is the Central Bank of the country and thus enjoys a supervisory position in the banking system. If there is a need it can urge the banks to exercise credit control at times to maintain the balance of funds in the market. This method is actually quite effective since banks tend to follow the policies set by the RBI.  Term Repo: Repo rate and reverse repo rate.       

Structure of RBI- 
Governorone . 
Depti Governor: Four .
 Four members from local board and jonal office Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai .  
Two members from Ministry of Finance (i) Finance Secretary  (ii)Revenue Secretary. 
 Ten members appointed by Government of India from various field.    This group of 21 member known as Central board .  Regional office: 19                                        Sub regional office : 9                                                                                       
   History of Reserve Bank of India :-
Prior to establishment of RBI, the functions of a central bank were virtually being done by the 
Imperial Bank of India. RBI started its operations from April 1, 1935. 
It was established via the RBI act 1934, so it is also known as a statutory body. Similarly, SBI is 
also a statutory body deriving its legality from SBI Act 1955. RBI did not start as a Government 
owned bank but as a privately held bank without major government ownership. It started with a 
Share Capital of Rs. 5 Crore, divided into shares of Rs. 100 each fully paid up. In the beginning, 
this entire capital was owned by private shareholders. 
Out of this Rs. 5 Crore, the amount of Rs. 4,97,8000 was subscribed by the private shareholders 
while Rs. 2,20,000 was subscribed by central government. After independence, the government 
passed Reserve Bank (Transfer to Public Ownership) Act, 1948 and took over RBI from private 
shareholders after paying appropriate compensation. Thus, nationalization of RBI took place in 
1949 and from January 1, 1949, RBI started working as a government owned bank. 
Hilton Young Commission 
Hilton-Young Commission was the Royal Commission on Indian Currency and Finance set up by 
British Government of India in 1920s. In 1926, this commission had recommended to the 
government to create a central bank in the country. On the basis of mainly this commission, the 
RBI act was passed. 
Key Landmarks in the journey of RBI 
In 1926, the Royal Commission on Indian Currency and Finance recommended creation of a 
central bank for India. 
In 1927, a bill to give effect to the above recommendation was introduced in the Legislative 
Assembly, but was later withdrawn due to lack of agreement among various sections of 
people. 
In 1933, the White Paper on Indian Constitutional Reforms recommended the creation of a 
Reserve Bank. A fresh bill was introduced in the Legislative Assembly. 
In 1934, the Bill was passed and received the Governor General’s assent 
In 1935, Reserve Bank commenced operations as India’s central bank on April 1 as a private 
shareholders’ bank with a paid up capital of rupees five crore. 
In 1942 Reserve Bank ceased to be the currency issuing authority of Burma (now Myanmar). 
In 1947, Reserve Bank stopped acting as banker to the Government of Burma. 
In 1948, Reserve Bank stopped rendering central banking services to Pakistan. 
In 1949, the Government of India nationalized the Reserve Bank under the Reserve Bank 
(Transfer of Public Ownership) Act, 1948. 
In 1949, Banking Regulation Act was enacted. 
In 1951, India embarked in the Planning Era. 
In 1966, the Cooperative Banks came within the regulations of the RBI. 
In 1966, Rupee was devaluated for the first time. 
In 1969, Nationalization of 14 Banks was a Turning point in the history of Indian Banking.In 1973, the Foreign Exchange Regulation act was amended and exchange control was 
strengthened. 
In 1974, the Priority Sector Advance Targets started getting fixed. 
In 1975, Regional Rural Banks started 
In 1985, the Sukhamoy Chakravarty and Vaghul Committee reports embarked the era of 
Financial Market Reforms in India. 
In 1991, India came under the Balance of Payment crisis and RBI pledged Gold to shore up 
reserves. Rupee was devaluated. 
In 1991-92, Economic Reforms started in India. 
In 1993, Exchange Rate became Market determined. 
In 1994, Board for Financial Supervision was set up. 
In 1997, the regulation of the Non Banking Financial Companies (NBFC) got strengthened. 
In 1998, Multiple Indicator Approach for monetary policy was adopted for the first time. 
In 2000, the Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA) replaced the erstwhile FERA. 
In 2002, The Clearing Corporation of India Ltd Started operation. 
In 2003, Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act (FRBMA) enacted. 
In 2004, Liquidity Adjustment Facility (LAF) started working fully. 
In 2004, Market Stabilization Scheme (MSS) was launched. 
In 2004 Real Time Gross Settlement (RTGS) started working. 
In 2006, Reserve Bank of India was empowered to regulate the money, forex, G-Security and 
Gold related security markets. 
In 2007, Reserve bank of India was empowered to regulate the Payment systems. 
Original Headquarters Of RBI 
Original headquarters of RBI were in Kolkata, but in 1937, it was shifted to Shahid Bhagat Singh 
Marg, Mumbai, which serves as current headquarters of RBI.                         

Virus,worms,Malware,Trojans, code,spyware

Codes:- Codes are two types malicious code and software code.  The code which work good purpose is called software and the code which work bad purpose that is harms devices is called malicious code.                   
 Malware:- A computer program which used to disrupt computer operation by hacking sensitive information corrupting our program or gain fully access to private personal computer with the without the permission of owner. Example- Virus, Worm,Trojan horse etc.                            
 VIRUS:- Full name vital information resources under size ,  this is replacing in nature, needs human interaction for activate.                              
   WORM:- Full name write ones read multiples ,  replacing in nature, do not needs human interaction, try to spread over network or try to enter server or try to breakdown network.                                                            
  Trojan Horse: Trojan Horse do not repeat itself , work as container ie  looks like good but harmful.                                                                       

Spyware:- This malware installs itself on your personal computer and looks for valuable information which it then sends back to criminals. It is primarily looking for passwords and account details.                                                

February 17, 2019

Computer Language or Programming languages

computer languages or Programming languages-
 First we described about what is Programming language?  To communicate to others, we use natural languages such as English and Hindi.  In the same way computer programming languages are used to communicate with computer. Except machine language, all programming languages have their own syntax, vocabulary and symbols. Syntaxes of statements vary in different programming languages. A program is a set of instructions or statements that are arranged in a sequence and instruct the computer for solving a problem. The process of writing a program using a particular programming language is called programming. A software is the computerized instructions that operate the computer, execute particular functions or tasks and manipulate the data. For software to perform various functions, it must be programmed. That is the instructions need to be written in a programming language that the computer can underground. Without a program, a computer is useless. 

Computer Languages or programming languages are mainly two types- Low Level and High Level .    (I) Low Level Language: A Language in which each instruction or statement is directly translated into a single machine code is called low level language. A program written in a low level language is tough to write, understand and edit as it is a series of 0s and 1s only. Besides the program is machine dependent. In other words, it is not portable. Example- Assembly code and Machine code are low level language .  Assembly code uses mixed code +,-,   machine code uses 0,1  0 known as operation code and 1 known location code.                                 

   (II) High Level Language: To overcome the difficulties associated with the low level language, high level language or procedure oriented language have been developed. An instruction in a high level language resembles an English sentence or mathematical expression. Programming in a high level language does not require precise knowledge of the architecture of a computer which is to be used. A high level program is highly portable. In other words, a program written in a high level language will run on any computer which is compiler for that language.  Example- BASIC, PASCAL,FORTRAN, LOGO,PROLOG,FORTH, COBOL,ALGOL,SNOBOL,PILOT,LISP,C,C++ , JAVA, .NET are high level language .   BASIC: It is a very simple and easy language for beginners ,suitable to scientific calculations.  
  FORTRAN: It is a powerful language for engineering and scientific computations.                        
   PASCAL: it is multipurpose language suitable for both business and scientific applications.         
  COBOL:It is used for commercial applications .                                
      C: This is useful to develop system softwares. Full name of FORTRAN- Formula Translation.Full name of PROLOG- Programming in logic .Full name of SNOBOL- String oriented Symbolic language.Full name of BASIC- Beginners all Purpose symbolic instruction Code . Full name of COBOL- Common Business Oriented language.  Full name of ALGOL- Algorithmic language. Full name of LISP- List Processing . PASCAL name was given on the honour of a great mathematician and inventor Blaize Pascal.           

Compiler: A program that translates a high level language into a machine language is called compiler . it reads whole program and then translates it.                                          
  Interpreter: An interpreter is also a program that translates a high level language  into its equivalent machine language . it reads one statement at a time , translates it into machine code , executes it and then goes next statement.                                       

Generations of computer

Generation of computer:Here The generation of computer have been described time Wise with respect to their uses technologies.
  First Generation (1946 to 1955):The first generation of computer was vaccume tubes. One vaccume tube cosume half watt power. Example- ENIAC,EDSAC,EDVAC,UNIVAC-I,UNIVAC-II,IBM-701,IBM-650,Mark-2,Mark-3 etc. 

Second Generation (1955 to 1965): Second generation computer used transistors which were made of semiconductor. Example- IBM-1401,IBM-1602,IBM-7094,CDS-3600, RAC-501,UNIVAC-1107 etc. 

Third Generation (1965 to 1975):Third generation computer used integrated circuits or chips which has hundred of transistors on a single body. Example- IBM-360,IBM-370,ICL-1900,ICL-2900,CDS-3000,CDS-6000,CDS-7000 etc. 

Forth Generation (1975 to 1990):Forth generation computer used micro processor chips that is why it was based on Very Large Scale Integrater. Example- Pantium-I, Pantium-II, Pantium-III,Pantium-IV. 

Fifth Generation (under developing stage, 1990 to till now): Fifth generation computer was based on super large scale integrater . assigned by automatic intelligence.  Full name of ENIAC- electronic numeric integrator and calculator. Full name of EDSAC- electronic delayed storage automatic computer.  Full name of EDVAC- electronic discrete variable automatic computer. Full name of UNIVAC- Universal automatic computer .                      

February 15, 2019

Some internet services and their terminology,

 internet services- (1)World wide web (www): The word wide web is simply known as web. It is a set of program to allow a user to access web pages (the vast network of hypertext transfer protocol servers (web servers) that store documents called web pages.) governed by the protocol where you access or create your web sites (the documents which contain combination of computer data, including text,graphics, sounds,video ,multimedia and interactive content that runs while the user is interacting with the page is called websites or websites are the files created and displayed on web and access through hyperlinks supported by hypertext transfer protocol).      
 
(2) Domain Name: it is a set of value used to provide symbolic identity to the website address like Yahoo. Com,Google. Com etc.        
 
 (3) Web address: it is a unique name followed by domain name is used to access a certain website to provide related information.          
(4) Protocol: Protocol are set of program to communicate.     

(5) Newsgroups: Newsgroups are the discussion forums that provide the services to exchange messages on the internet about a particular subject.      
 (6) FTP(file transfer protocol): it is way to transfer files to others through internet. The files stored on a particular type of servers called file transfer protocol server. The browsers can be used to transfer file FTP servers to client computer but it is a slow process to transfer files.          
(7) Talenet: Talenet is an internet service that is used to login and run programs on a remote server on the internet. Through this service, you can also access information on the internet. The talenet provides you a prompt on your screen and you can access the host computer by giving instructions through this prompt.      
(8)  E-commerce:  Electronic Commerce is a very important service provided by the internet through which financial transactions are carried out over the internet. It is modern way of electronic trade. Example- online banking, online shopping, online advertising etc.      
  (9) Gopher: it is an internet services that organizes resources into multilevel menus to make finding information easier on the internet.    

    (10)  E-mail:Sending messages electronically from one computer to another computer, generally through a telephone line and modem connected to a computer is called electronic mail.   It is the most popular service provided by internet by which we can electronically send and receive massages anywhere in the world. You can also send pictures, documents, audio and video files through e-mail by attaching the file with the e-mail.       
(11) Chatting: Internet also provides the facility to internet user to talk with people online all over the world. The chat room allows the users to participate in a chat on the internet. A chat room is the area on the world wide web where you talk with people online. 

Here we are given important terms associated with the design and structure of the Internet- (1) Home Page: The site which is the starting point on world wide web for a particular organization or group is called home page.                  
(2) Download: Copy a file from one computer to another computer . Internet user's point of view downward means download a file is to request it from another computer and to receive it.      

(3) Emoticons: Little smiley faces , people used to indicate emotions in chat box or in e-mail massages is called emoticons.           
 (4)Bookmark: A link that you saved so that you can easily click on it rather than having to retype the address when you visit again on the site. 

(5) Hyperlink: An easy way for retrieving information by choosing highlighted icons or words on the screen of computer is called hyperlink.   

(6) HTTP: Full name hypertext transfer protocol, it is used by world wide web servers to provide rules for move images, text ,video, sound and other multimedia files access the internet. 

(7) Internet Service Provider (ISP): A Company that offers to the users to use internet.

 (8) Search Engine: A tools that performs keywords searches for information on the internet.

(9) Web Browser: it is a software program that allow to find ,see and hear material on the world wide web including text, sound, graphics and video.
(10)  POP: Standard way to download and upload e-mails is called post office protocol (POP). 

(11) Modem: A  device that connect your computer through the phone lines to another computer or modem. Full name is modulator and demodulator. 

(12) Netiquette: Rules for interacting courteously with others online. OR it is set of rules for behaving online. Full name is internet etiquette.

 (13) ARPANET: Full name Advanced Research Project Agency Network. Computer network mainly developed for military purposes, by United State Defense Department. ARPANET went into service in 1969  when it connected four Universities and research laboratories. 
(14) Archie(archive): The searching tools on the internet.               
                                                                           

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