computer languages or Programming languages-
First we described about what is Programming language? To communicate to others, we use natural languages such as English and Hindi. In the same way computer programming languages are used to communicate with computer. Except machine language, all programming languages have their own syntax, vocabulary and symbols. Syntaxes of statements vary in different programming languages. A program is a set of instructions or statements that are arranged in a sequence and instruct the computer for solving a problem. The process of writing a program using a particular programming language is called programming. A software is the computerized instructions that operate the computer, execute particular functions or tasks and manipulate the data. For software to perform various functions, it must be programmed. That is the instructions need to be written in a programming language that the computer can underground. Without a program, a computer is useless.
Computer Languages or programming languages are mainly two types- Low Level and High Level . (I) Low Level Language: A Language in which each instruction or statement is directly translated into a single machine code is called low level language. A program written in a low level language is tough to write, understand and edit as it is a series of 0s and 1s only. Besides the program is machine dependent. In other words, it is not portable. Example- Assembly code and Machine code are low level language . Assembly code uses mixed code +,-, machine code uses 0,1 0 known as operation code and 1 known location code.
(II) High Level Language: To overcome the difficulties associated with the low level language, high level language or procedure oriented language have been developed. An instruction in a high level language resembles an English sentence or mathematical expression. Programming in a high level language does not require precise knowledge of the architecture of a computer which is to be used. A high level program is highly portable. In other words, a program written in a high level language will run on any computer which is compiler for that language. Example- BASIC, PASCAL,FORTRAN, LOGO,PROLOG,FORTH, COBOL,ALGOL,SNOBOL,PILOT,LISP,C,C++ , JAVA, .NET are high level language . BASIC: It is a very simple and easy language for beginners ,suitable to scientific calculations.
FORTRAN: It is a powerful language for engineering and scientific computations.
PASCAL: it is multipurpose language suitable for both business and scientific applications.
COBOL:It is used for commercial applications .
C: This is useful to develop system softwares. Full name of FORTRAN- Formula Translation.Full name of PROLOG- Programming in logic .Full name of SNOBOL- String oriented Symbolic language.Full name of BASIC- Beginners all Purpose symbolic instruction Code . Full name of COBOL- Common Business Oriented language. Full name of ALGOL- Algorithmic language. Full name of LISP- List Processing . PASCAL name was given on the honour of a great mathematician and inventor Blaize Pascal.
Compiler: A program that translates a high level language into a machine language is called compiler . it reads whole program and then translates it.
Interpreter: An interpreter is also a program that translates a high level language into its equivalent machine language . it reads one statement at a time , translates it into machine code , executes it and then goes next statement.