Hardware ,computer formation tools and computer memory with their types,

Here we difine Hardware and explain about types of Hardwar:- 

Hardware Definition: The Physical components of a computer which can be touched and seen are called hardware.       
   Types of Hardware: hardware are four types- Input, Output, Storage and Processing device.                
 
  (I) Input Device: The input devices are used to feed the instructions into the computer. Example- BCR,OMR,OCR ,MICR, Keyboard, Mouse, Scanner, Trackball, Joystick,Light pen,Microphone, etc.  BCR Full name Bar Code Reader,  OCR Full name Optical character reader,OMR Full name Optical mark reader, MICR Full name Magnetic ink character recognition.                      

(II) Output Device : The result which is obtained after processing is called output devices. Example-Printer,Monitor, Ploter,Projector, Speaker etc.                                  
    
(III) Storage Device: The devices which stored or hold data or instructions  when devices worked on or not called output device . Example- RAM,ROM,Hard Disk, Floppy Disk , CD-ROM,Conpact Disk, Universal serial Bus,Digital Video Disk etc.                          
  
(IV) Processing Device: Computer performs useful operations by manipulating the data in many ways. This manipulation is processing and used devices for this processing is called processing devices. Processing devices includes calculation, comparisons and decisions.    Example-  CPU Full name central processing unit,     Parts of Central processing unit- Arithmetic and logic unit, Control unit and Memory unit.                                
 
  Computer formation Tools: computer formation tools are two types first is Hardware and second is Software. 

(I) Hardware: The Physical tools required to use,create, manipulate and store electronic data is called hardware.                         
 
  (II) Software: The instruction that is Computerised; operate a computer manipulate the data and execute particular task or functions is called software.                                          
  We are given following hardware tools(i) Central Processing Unit (CPU): CPU is known as the brain of computer. This is single or more than one chip located at the heart (motherboard) of a computer that enable it to process data is called processor. It is consists of two parts first Arithmetic Logic Unit and Second is Control Unit. 
 (I)  Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU): There are two types of operation perform by ALU - arithmetic and logical  here arithmetic means addition, subtraction, multiplication and division type operations While Logical means comparing one data to another data that means first data is greater than,less than or equal to other data.

 (II) Control Unit (CU): The unit which control computer system  directs the movement of electronic signals between the ALU and memory, directs control signals between the input/output devices and CPU provide coordination between tools of a computer is called Control Unit. (ii) Memory: The area where computer system holds data waiting to be processed is called Memory . It is mainly two type first primary and second is Secondary memory.              (I) Primary Memory:  This memory communicates directly with the central processing unit. It is made up of silicon chips. It is two type (a) RAM and (b) ROM. Random access memory (RAM) is volatile memory while Read Only Memory (ROM) is permanent Memory.         (II) Secondary Memory: Mainly there are three types of secondary storage devices- hard disk,floppy disk and optical disk.                                    

Hard Disk: It is magnetic disk on which can be stored computer data. Hard disk has high capacity and faster than floppy disks. It is usually consists of several hard platters. A single platter requires two read/write head, all the read/write heads are touched to a single access arm so that they cannot move freely. The number of tracks that cuts across all platter is called cylinder.           
 
Floppy Disk: this is a soft magnetic disk .  it is easily portable from one place to another. This disk is slower to access than hard disk and has less storage capacity.            
 
  Optical Disk: An optical disc drive is a disk drive (the device used to read or write data from the disk is called disk drive)  that uses laser light near light spectrum as part of the process of writing or reading data to or from optical discs. The common types of optical discs is Compact Discs (CD) and Digital Versatile Disks (DVD).       
 
 Input Devices : The devices that are used to enter information into the computer is called input devices (Such as keyboard, mouse, Joystick, track ball and scanner).       
 
  Keyboard: keyboard is a basic device through which you can input information into computer. It is easy to use keyboard because most of them QWERTY typewriter setup.  Some keyboard has control keys like Home, End, Escape (ESC),Control (CTRL),Insert, Page Down, Page up, Delete and Alternative (ALT) that let you carry out these simple tasks with just one click.                               
Mouse : It is a handheld pointing device for computers, involving a small tools fitted with one or more buttons and shaped to sit naturally under the hand. 2D motion of mouse is typically translated into the motion of a cursor on the display. Cursor is a small blinking arrow displayed on the computer screen.                   
 Joystick: This device help playing computer games . joystick consists of a handle that can be pointed in different directions. It can be used to control the movement of tools or objects displayed on the computer screen.                                          
 Track Ball: It is similar to upside-down design of the mouse. To move pointer , you rotate the ball with your fingers,thumb or the palm of your hand. Users can spin the ball in different direction to control the screen movement.                    

Scanner: It is an external device to record data on to the computer . The data can include book pages, photographs and other images already on a piece of paper. It is not only copy machine but also transmitted digital images into the computer.                                 

    Output Devices: The devices that are used to the data to the user or allow information to represent to the user either in the form of hard copy or soft copy is called output devices (such as printer, monitor, plotter, projector and speaker).           
  
 Printer: A printer is an output device that prints text , spread sheet,images on the paper. Printed data or information, which exists physically is known as hard copy .  Quality of printer is measured in dot per inch.  Printer are mainly two types first Impact and other is Non impact .Impact Printer(dot matrix) Non impact printer (inkjet printer, laser printer, plotter).                      
 
   Plotter: Plotter are a large scale printer that are highly accurate at reproducing line drawing.     

Projector: It is uses for presentations. Due to containing lens it is used to flash the film to an object.                                        
Speaker: it is used to provide sound as output , used in multimedia to listen music or to play sound giving games.                                    
  Computer Memory: Basically computer has two types of memory one is Primary or internal or main memory and other is secondary or auxiliary memory.                    
 
 Primary Memory: Primary memory is the memory used by the computer's processor to run its program, application and operating system. Primary are two types RAM and ROM.                                      
   Here we given types of RAM (random access memory) and ROM (read only memory).                  
   Types of RAM: SRAM,DRAM,SDRAM etc.       
    Types of ROM: PROM,EPROM,EEPROM.  Secondary (auxiliary) memory: This is nonvolatile(permanent) memory that means this type of memory holds data even if power off. Example of secondary memory: Floppy disks, Hard disk, Compact disk, CD-ROM, Optical disk, DVD,USB etc. Full name of USB- Universal serial Bus. Full name of DVD- Digital Video Disk. Full name of CD-ROM- Compact Disk Read Only Memory .  Full name of EEPROM- Electrically Erasable Programmable Read only Memory. Full name of EPROM- Erasable Programmable Read Only memory. Full name of SDRAM- Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory. Full name of DRAM- Dynamic Random Access Memory. Full name of SRAM- Static Random Access Memory.                                   
 Memory Units: 1 Byte=8 Bits. 1 Kilo Byte(KB)=1024 Bytes. 1 Mega Byte(MB)=1024 KB. 1 Giga Byte(GB)=1024 MB. 1 Tera Byte(TB)=1024 GB. 1 Peta Byte(PB)=1024 GB. 1 Exam Byte(EB)= 1024 PB. Note: 1 Nibble= 4 Bytes.                                       Computer Speed Units: 1 Kilo Hertz=10,000 Hertz. 1 Mega Hertz= 10,000 Kilo Hertz. 1 Giga Hertz= 10,000 Mega Hertz. 1 Tera Hertz= 10,000 Giga Hertz. 1 Peta Hertz=10,000 Tera Hertz. 1 Exa Hertz =10,000 Peta Hertz.  Note: one Mega= 1Million(10Lakh). One Giga= 1 Billion (1 Arab)                 

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