March 16, 2019

Types of cheques

What is cheque? 

Cheque: cheque is a negotiable instruments that instruct a bank to pay a specific amount from a specific account held in the depositor name with that bank. Validity 3 months applicable from 1st April 2012 .                             
There are three parties to a cheque- Drawer, Drawee and Payee.           

Drawer: Who draws cheque, Drawer can be customer or account holder.  

Drawee: For Whom the cheque is Drawn, it is also called paying banker.                                        
  Payee: Payee is the person to Whom the amount stated in the cheque is payable. It may be drawer himself or only the third party that States in the cheque.                                          

Types of cheque- 

(i) Order cheque: only for particular person.     

  (ii) Bearer Cheque: it is payable everyone Whomsoever bears.              

(iii) Blank cheque: when only sign mentioned all columns leave blank.     

(iv) Stale cheque:  when the cheque is more than three months old.    

(v) Mutilated cheque: if the cheque is torn into two or three fold.                

(vi) Post dated cheque: if a cheque contain  a date later than the date of issue.                                  

  (vii) Crossed Cheque: the cheque which is crossed by parallel transverse lines across the face of the cheque with or without words.       

(viii) Open cheque: The cheque Which is not crossed.                                      

(ix) Gift cheques: issued for occasions like wedding, birthday etc.

  (x) Traveler cheque: issued by a bank remittance of money from one place to another place.

Types of bank accounts

There are mainly four types of bank accounts in India- Saving account, Current account, Recurring account and Fixed account.

(I) Saving Account: This account is opened to encourage people to save money . The saving account holder is allowed to withdraw money from the account on demand. Interest on this account fixed by Reserve bank of India. Maximum limit 50,000 after using Permanent Account Number You can transact more than 50,000.  Minimum amount is nessery to remain account active.                                             

(II) Current Account: Generally this account  is opened by businessman. No transaction limit. No rate of interest paid by banks.                           

(III) Recurring Account: it is term deposit offered by banks. Also known as RD account which help people to deposit a fixed amount every month or specific time period basis. Generally maturity period 6 months to 120 months. Interest  compounded quarterly.                                                                                       
(IV) Fixed Deposit Account: This account is opened for a particular time period ,money is deposited for a fixed period six months, one year, five years, ten years etc. Account holder earn higher rate on this account.  Minimum amount to require 1000 to open FD.     Opened for minimum 15 days and maximum 10 years.                                                                                                 
  Some Other Accounts are also given below-

Demat account: it is opened by company or share holders.  It works as  current account. It is uses as electronically.                                                                                                      
 Dormant Account: The account which is not active at least 2 year is called non active or dormant account.  For reactive KYC ( know your customer) form is necessary.                                                                                                              
NoFrille  Account: it is active account on zero balance,  This account is opened for the person who not generally can't follows rules of banking.                 

Foreign Currency Non-Resident Accounts: RBI allowed Indian to open FCNRA   from November 1 ,1975. This account is opened, chosen converted currency  because by this account can send money from one country to another country.                                                                                                                   
Non-Resident External Rupee Accounts: This account is opened by Non-Resident Indians in machant bank for marketing purpose.                             

Basic Saving Bank Deposit Account(BSBDA): it is issued by reserve bank of India  from August 10,2012, This is generally opened by poor or weaker section of society.  BSBDA is applicable for India banks as well as foreign banks whose branches are setup in India. Maximum balance limit 50,000, ATM transaction 4 time free in a day. Cash withdrawn and transfer can not exceed 10,000 in a month,Total can not exceed 1 lakh in a year, for foreign remittances can not credited to small amount without fulfilling KYC Norms. BSBDA is valid for 12 months but extended  another 12 months if person provides proof officially valid document.    

March 14, 2019

Capital Market

What is capital market?
 Capital Market: The market which deals with medium and long term funds is called capital market. Capital market refers to all facilities and the institutional arrangements for borrowing and lending for medium and long term.   Mainly demands for long term funds comes from private business corporations, public business corporations and the government. Supply of money or funds comes from individual and institutional investors, banks and  special industrial financial institutions and government.                                      
The capital market mainly classified into two ways- 
(I) Primary market: primary market is new issue securities like market of share, debenture of non government public limited companies, preference shares and public sector bonds.
 (II) Secondary market: this market refers to already or preissued securities OR The market which allow to buy and sale of securities.                  

Functions of Capital Market -
Mobilization of savings to finance long term investments.
Facilitates trading of securities.
Minimization of transaction and information cost.
Encourage wide range of ownership of productive assets.
Quick valuation of financial instruments like shares and debentures.
Facilitates transaction settlement, as per the definite time schedules.
Offering insurance against market or price risk, through derivative trading.
Improvement in the effectiveness of capital allocation, with the help of competitive price mechanism.         

 Other factors related to capital market-
 Gild-Edged Market: This market refers to seles and purchases of government securities.    
  Financial Intermediaries: it includes Mutual Fund, Leasing companies, Merchant Bank etc. They help to manage saving and supplying funds to Capital market.                  
 Industrial Securities Market: In Industrial Securities market shares and debentures of new companies are bought and sales that  means it deals with debentures and equities.   
 Development Financial institutions: Institutions like(LIC,IFCI,UTI,GIC,IDBI,ICICI etc) were set up to meet the medium and Long term requirements of industry, agriculture and trade. These institutions are called public sector financial institutions. 

Buy Back: means 'share repurchase'. 

Equity: ' Bunch of shares'.
Debenture: borrowing money on the basis of agreement. 

Debt: The funds raised by company through issue of debt instruments. 

IPOs: First time investment from the public by offering shares is known as initial public offerings. 

FPOs: When a listed company invest to raise further capital known as follow on public offers.

March 11, 2019

National income

National Income: National Income is estimate measure the volume of commodities and services turn out during a given period constuted without Depreciation.     
Financial Year ( 1 April- 31March): In India National Income was first time calculated by Mrs. Dada Bhi Narroji in 1868 at that time population was seventy crore and per capita income was 20 rupees. Mrs. Narroji gave the theory of Drain of Wealth. In India national income was calculated by CSO ( central stastical office or organization). 

Tools of National Income: GDP,NDP,GNP,NNP.                                                                                        
 GDP (gross domestic product ): it is the gross market value of all final goods and services produced within the domestic territory of country in a financial year or an year.      

GDP = C + I + G + ( x-m).  C= Consumption, I= Investment, G= Government expenditure, x= Export, m= Import . NDP ( Net domestic product) = GDP -Depreciation.                                                                                                         
GNP ( gross national product) : An estimate measure the total worth of a country by its national on its land or on foreign land is known as GNP. 

GNP= GDP + income ( coming from outside of India ) - income ( Income going outside of India)       OR     GNP= GDP+ NFIA( net factor income aboard) . 

NNP ( Net national product): it is the market value of all final goods and services after allowing for depreciation. It is also called national income at market price. 

NNP(at factor costs)= NNP( at market costs) - indirect taxes + subsidies.       

National income at factor costs: it is a national income, at factor costs the sum of all incomes earned by resources supply for their contribution of land, capital, labour, organization rent, wages,income,profit etc.                               
  Per capita income: it is the best indicator to check the growth and development of country. 
Per capita income =  (national income ÷ total population) . 

Other concepts

Personal income = national income + transfer payments + net interest - retained earning - social security . 

Desposable Personal income= consume + subsidies.  OR  DPI = Personal income - direct taxes + subsidies. 
National income doesn't include: black money, transfer payments, social services, remittances, second hand goods and services etc.   
Note:- Method of Calculation of National Income are mainly three types : (I) Production Method (II) Income method (III) Expenditure Method.

March 09, 2019

Organization and head quarter

Here we given some important organization and their head quarter

EU- Brussels-1993.                       



ICAO-Mantrial- 1947.                     

IMF- Washington DC-1944.          

IMO- Landon-1948.                        

IFC-Washington DC- 1956.         

ITU- Geneva-1865.                       

IBRD- Washington DC-1945. 


IBSA- no head quarter - 2003.      


IDA- Washington DC- 1960.        

WMO- Geneva-1950.                   

NAFTA- no head quarter-1992 . 

UNWTO-Madrid- 1974.                  






WIPO-Geneva- 1974.                

BRICS- no head quarter-2009.  

ICSID- Washington DC-1966 . 


SAARC- Khathmandu-1985.         

MIGA- Washington DC- 1945.      

ADB- Manila-1966.                         

ACU- Tehran-1945.                        

SCO- Beijing-1996.                       


APEC-Singapur- 1989.            
OPEC- Viayna-1960.                     




CHOGM- London-1926.             
UNEP- Nairobi-1972.                    

(1) EU: European Union.                     

(2) IAEA: International Atomic Energy Agency.                                  
(3) BIS: BANKS for International Settlement.                                         

(4) ICAO: International Civil Aviation Organization.                                       
(5) IMF: International Monetary Fund. 

(6) IMO: International Marine Organization.                                        

(7) IFC: International Financial Corporation.                                        

(8) ASEAN: Association of South-East Asian Nations.                            

(9) ITU: International Telecommunication Union.           

(10) IBRD: International Bank For Reconstruction and Development .

(11) UNESCO: United Nations Educational ,Scientific and Cultural Organization .                                 

(12) IBSA: India Brazil and south Africa.                                             
(13) UPU: Universal Postal Union .

(14) IDA: International Development Association.                                     

(15) WMO: World Metro logical Organization.                                  

(16) NAFTA- North American Free Trade Agreement.                            

(17) UNWTO: United Nations World Tourism Organization.                    

(18) UNO: United Nations Organization.                                   

(19) WTO: World Trade Organization.

(20) UNODC: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.                        

(21) UNIDO: United  Nations Industrial Development Organization 

(22) UNICEF: United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund.                                                

(23) WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization.                    

(24) BRICS: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa .                  

(25) ICSID: International Center for Settlement of Investment Dispute. 

(26) BIMSTEC: Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi Sectoral Technical Economic Cooperation.         
(27) SAARC: South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation.               

(28) MIGA: Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency.                           

(29) ADB: Asian Development Bank.

(30) ACU: Asian Clearing House.     

(31) SCO: Shanghai Cooperation Organization.                                    

(32) WEF: World Economic Forum.

(33) APEC: Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation.                                    

(34) OPEC: Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries.   

(35) ILO: International Labour Organization.                                 

(36) FAO: Food and Agricultural Organization.                                     

(37) IFAD: International Fund for Agricultural Development.               

(38) OECD: Organization for Economic Cooperation Development

(39) WHO: world Health Organization .                                          

March 08, 2019

Bank , head quarter with establishment date and year and also their taglines or slogans,

Bank,head quarter and establishment date- 

Here we given some important banks and their head quarter- 

United Commercial bank- 6 January 1943- Kolkata.         

Oriental Bank of Commerce- 19 fabuary 1943-New Delhi.          

  Indian Bank-5 March 1907- Chennai.                              
 Corporation Bank- 5 March 1906-Mangalore.                                   

Punjab National Bank-12 April 1895- New Delhi.                                      

Dena Bank- 26 May 1938 - Mumbai. 

Punjab and Sindh Bank- 24 June 1908- New Delhi.                            

Bank of Baroda- 20 July 1908-Broda.                                           
 Union Bank -11 November 1919- Mumbai.                                       
Andrea Bank- 20  November 1923- Hyderabad.                                   

Indian Overseas Bank- 10 Fabuary 1937- Channai.                                

Bank of India- 7 September 1906- Mumbai.                                      

Central Bank of India-21 December 1911- Mumbai.                            
 Bank of Maharashtra-16 September 1935- Pune.                              
 Bhartya Manila Bank- 19 November 2013- New Delhi.                     

Allahabad Bank- 24 April 1865- Kolkata.                                     

 Reserve Bank of India - 1 April 1935- Mumbai.

State Bank of India- 1 July 1955- Mumbai.                             
Vijaya Bank- 23 October 1931- Bangalore.                                         

Bank and Head Office. 

(1) State bank of India: Mumbai.        

(2) Allahabad Bank: Kolkata.           

 (3) State bank of Hyderabad: Hyderabad.                                         

(4) Bank of Baroda: Baroda.             

 (5 ) Bank of India: Mumbai.           

   (6) Union Bank of India: Mumbai.     

(7) Central Bank of India: Mumbai.

(8)  Industrial Development Bank of India: Mumbai.                                   

 (9) Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India: Mumbai.       

(10) Dena Bank: Mumbai.               

 (11) Indian Bank: Chennai.          

  (12) Indian Overseas Bank: Chennai.                                           
(13) State Bank of Mysore: Bangalore.                                        
(14) Canara Bank: Bangalore.         

(15) Vijaya Bank: Bangalore.       

 (16) * Corporation Bank: Mangalore.

(17) * Sindicate Bank: Manipal. 

  (18) United Commercial Bank: Kolkata.                                            

 (19) * United Bank of India: Kolkata . 

(20) Andhra Bank: Hyderabad.     

(21) Punjab national Bank: New Delhi.                                               

  (22) Oriental Bank of Commerce: New Delhi.                                     

  (23) Punjab and Sindh Bank: New Delhi.                                               

 (24) Bank of Maharashtra: Pune.

(25) State Bank of Patiala: Patiala. 

(26) State Bank of Jaipur and Bikaner: Jaipur.                              

(27) State Bank of Travancore: Trivendram.                                

  Banks and their taglines or slogans or punchlines

Syndicate Bank: Your Faithful and Friendly Financial Partner.                                      
 Federal Bank: Your Perfect Banking Partner.                                      

 Punjab National Bank: The Name You can Bank upon.                    

United Bank of India: The bank That begins with U.                           

Lakshmi Vilas Bank: The Changing Face of Prosperity.                

 Deutsche Bank: A passion to perform.                                       

Vijaya Bank: A friend you can bank upon.                                               

Bank of Baroda: India's International Bank.                                      

 Allahabad Bank: Tradition of Trust. 

Andhra Bank: Friendly, Intelligent, Responsive.                                 

Indian Overseas Bank: Good People to Grow with.                                

 Dena Bank: Trusted Family Bank. 

State Bank of India: with you all the way.                                                

Union Bank of India: Good People of Bank with.                                     

 Indian Bank: Taking Banking Technology to Common Man. 

Canara Bank: We are changing for you.                                       

Corporation Bank: Prosperity to all. 

Yes Bank: Experience our Expertise. 

Punjab and Sindh Bank: where service is a way of life.             

Central Bank of India: central to you since 1911.                                

Oriental Bank of Commerce: where Every individual is committed.    

Bank of India: Relationship Beyond Banking.                                          

Bank of Maharashtra: One Family, One Bank.                                      

  UCO Bank: Honours your Trust. 

South Indian Bank: Experience Next Generation Banking.                       

    J and K Bank:Serving to Empower. 

Bank of Rajasthan: Together we Prosper.                                

   Industrial Development Bank of India: Banking for  All.            

Housing Development Finance 

Corporation Bank: We Understand your World.                            

Industrial Credit and Investment 

Corporation of India Bank:Hum Hai Na.                                                 

 State Bank of India: {Pure Banking Nothing Else, The banker to every Indian, With you all the way, The nation banks on us}.     

March 07, 2019

Mutual funds, NAV,ETF,SIP,BSE,NSE,SEBI,ETFs,Lock in period, Financial lease,ELSS,

What is mutual funds
Mutual funds: Mutual funds is a component that collects saving from investors for investment purposes. Mutual funds invest in the financial market. Mutual funds is safe procedure for investment. The following points needs to know about mutual funds which came under same category of investment through mutual funds- * Mutual funds gives transparent dealing and managed by professionally. * Mutual funds contains high liquidity proceduer, simple sale procedure, and tax saving options in the investment. Mutual funds is regulated by SEBI since 1996, the first mutual funds is Unit trust of India (UTI) set up in 1963. 

Types of mutual funds:
Mutual funds are two types - close ended funds and open ended funds.
Closed ended funds: closed ended funds works for certain period.  
Open ended funds: open ended funds works for all time for providing sale and repurchases. Mutual fund investment plan: The most important investment plan of mutual funds is systematic investment plan (SIP). On the basis of SIP you can (I) Invest small amount of money on the regular interval.

 Lock in period: The period during which the funds from investment accounts are not allowed to be withdrawn by investors. It is already mentioned before investment in mutual funds. Minimum lock in period  3 year for mutual funds while for the banks  minimum lock in period is 5 year.
  ELSS: it is tax saving scheme, full name Equity linked saving scheme, lock in period 3 year. 
Gilt funds: related to government securities. 
Indexation: it is procedure to value an assets at current prices linked to its purchases price. 
Net assets value( NAV): NAV is the total market value of the assets of a mutual funds scheme.  
Repurchases price in mutual : the price unit at which the open ended funds are repurchased. 
Redemption price in mutual funds: The price unit at which close ended funds are paid on maturity. 
 Association of mutual funds in India (AMFI): AMFI is the body of mutual funds that protect the interest of mutual funds and investors.  
Index funds: related to sensex, Nifty.  
Sector funds: related to sector specific like banking, reality, industrial, infrastructure etc.
 Income funds: related to bonds of corporate and government. 
Growth funds: related to equity stocks. 
Balance funds: related to equity and debt. 
Money market funds: related to financial or money market. 
Delisting of Shares: Delisting occurs When companies decide to buyback their own shares voluntary is called delisting of shares.
 Financial lease: Financing high cost equipments at a lesser cost compared to term loans called financial lease, it is generally used by customer on payment of lease rentals for the banks with ownership right remaining within the lessor. 
Exchange Traded Funds (ETF): ETF is the funds that works as a stock exchange, it is open for investment during the time duration that the stock exchange is open and functioning .  ETF tracks indexes like Nifty, BSE,Banking index etc. ETF enables investors to create customized portfolios in line with their risk taking power or ability and time horizons.  Using ETFs the investors gain benefits which is not possible in open ended mutual funds.        
SEBI:Securities and exchange board of India is established in 1988, and  given statuary power on 12th April 1992. Head quarter- Mumbai (Bandra-kurla complex).
BSE: Bombay stock exchange, established in 1875, head quarter- Mumbai. Index of BSE is sensex  , 30 companies are listed in BSE.        
  NSE: National Stock exchange established on 3rd November in 1994, head quarter- Mumbai.                

March 06, 2019

What is CSS class,CSS class syntax

What is CSS class: CSS class is very useful for developers to give multiple looks an HTML with CSS, if generally CSS not able to change Font size,colour then you can use different classes called CSS class. Using classes is simple, you just need to add an extension to be the typical CSS code make sure you specify this extension in your HTML.  CSS class syntax: you can create CSS class using dot (.) Followed by class name ,after the class name enter the properties, values that you want to show  your class. class-name { property:value; }      if you want to show same class for multiple elements with different style then you use perfix the dot (.) with HTML element name.  HTML I elements name.class-name { property: value;}.   Types of CSS Class:- On the basis of CSS positioning CSS are three types- (i) Relative Positioning, (ii) Absolute Positioning and (iii) Fixed Positioning. 

March 05, 2019

What is css, CSS syntax, what is inline CSS HTML, what is external CSS, what is CSS class,CSS class syntax,

What is CSS: full name of CSS in cascading style sheets, using CSS you can control the layout of web pages,when you maintaining a large site CSS save your lots of time,  web developers  use CSS instead of html on the recommendation of W3C ( world wide web consortium.                
 Advantages of CSS: pages load faster,saves time, multiple device compatibility, compatible with future browsers.                                           

CSS syntax: the set of rule that tell the browser how to render an element called CSS syntax , CSS syntax is two types   selector and  a declaration .

 selector : selector represents the HTML element to be affected by the rule.          

Dicliaration: it represents the effect to be applied to the elements, contains property values.               

 Syntax: selector { property: value} 

Types of CSS : CSS are four types  inline CSS,embedded CSS,external CSS,and imported CSS.              More  information about CSS please click here                

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