March 31, 2020

Basel Norms and Basel Committee

Basel Committee and Basel Norms
Basel Committee on Bank of International Settlement: It is a committee of banks supervisors consisting of representatives from each of the most developed  countries. The committee is a forum for discussion on the handling of specific supervisory problems. It coordinates the sharing of supervisory responsibilities among national authorities in respect of banks' foreign establishments. The purpose is to ensure  effective supervision of banks' activities worldwide.                                             
In 1988 the Basel committee on banking supervision introduced the Basel-I accord or the risk based capital requirements to deal with the weakness in the leverage ratio as a measure for solvency. It was the first attempt to introduced the concept of minimum standards of capital adequacy. Number of members of Bank of international settlement committee is 55. Basel Norms is related to Capital Adequacy and Risk management. Basel Norms are followed by banks in India in order to comply with international best practices. This enables banks to be judged in comparison to other banks with respect to their work practices and strength.

Basel-I:Basel-I addressed only one Credit Risk, Basel-I introduced in 1988, Basel-I Capital adequate ratio target was 9%,

Basel-II Norms:Unfortunately India could not fully implement this but it is now gearing up under the guidance from the RBI to implement it from 1st April 2009.Basel-II Addresses 3 major Pillars Risks- Credit Risk-60%,Market Risk-25% and Operational Risk-15%,Minimum Capital to be maintained by banks under Basel-II is 8%,                                                           
  Credit Risk: it is basically the risk of loss,arising when a borrower back the loan as promised such borrowers are also known as subprime borrowers.     

Market Risk: Market risk is the risk that the value of an asset will decrease due to changes in market factors for Banks,market risk is a risk that the value of on or off balance sheet positions will be adversely affected by movements in equity and interest rate markets,currency exchange rates and commodity prices- it also called "systematic risk" because it relates to factors such as a recession that impact the entire market.                                                    
Operational Risk: Operational risk is the prospect of loss resulting from inadequate or failed procedures, systems or policies, Employees errors, system failures,fraud or other criminal activity any event that disrupts businesses processes.

Basel-III:Basel-III norms are effective from 1st January 2013. RBI extended the timeline for full implementation of Basel-III norms to 31 march 2019 instead of 31 March 2018. Basel-III Proposes may new capital, leverage and liquidity standards to strengthen the regulation supervision and risk management of the banking sector.Basel-III is an internationally agreed set of measures developed by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision in response to the financial crisis of 2007-09. The measure aim to strengthen the regulation supervision and risk management of banks. Basel-III Capital adequacy ratio is 9%, Basel-III has three Pillars which is related to Basel-II Pillar(I)-Minimum Capital requirements (ii) Supervisory Capital Requirements, (iii) Market Discipline and Disclosures. Pillar(I) devided into two parts- Tire-1 and Tire-2 Tire-1 has also two parts- Common Equity tire-1 and Additional tire-1. Tire- also called going concern and Tire -2 called gone concern. Pillar(iii) implemented in 1 July 2013. 

March 29, 2020

IP Address?

What is IP Address: Full name of IP address is Internet protocol address, It is an address through which a Computer is identified on a internet/Network.   No two hosts on the Internet can have the same IP address. Each IP address consists of 4 bytes i.e 32 bits defining three fields:- Class,Network ID and Host ID.                                                                                                                              Example of IP Address-  Types of IP Address: On the basis of versions presently IP Address are two type- IPv4 and IPv6 , where v denotes - Version.                                                                                                                                          Important points about IPv4: It is 32 bit (4 bytes) unique address. It has four parts and each part can have values between 0 to 255.                            CLasses of IP Address: IP Address is devided into 5 classes based on the address range. Class A,Class B,Class C , Class D ( reserved for multicasts groups) and Class E ( Reserved for future use or research and development purpose). Important points about IPv6: It is 128-bit address space. It has eight 4 Character. It is hexadecimal. IPv6 also called IPng( Internet protocol next generation). IPv6 is successor of IPv4.

Spice Money

What is Spice Money: Spice Money (part of Spice Digital*, listed entity on BSE / NSE : SPICE Mobility Ltd)) is a leading company in financial services with over 110,000 strong agent network across ALL States of India. Spice Money enables agents to provide Banking, Travel, Electricity and  Utility Bills and Payments related solutions to customers.
Web Links of Spice Money: Website:
Web Portal :
Spice Money helps agents to grow their earnings by providing attractive offers/schemes and commission every month.
1. Spice Digital has the RBI Licence to operate Wallet services (PPI Licence).
2. Spice Digital has the BBPS (Bharat Bill Pay) Licence issued from RBI.
3. Spice Digital has the AEPS service (Micro ATM) Powered by RBL Bank.
4. Spice Digital markets Cash-At-PoS product (Mini ATM) 
5. Spice Digital issues Rupay Prepaid Platinum cards through Yes Bank 
6. Spice Digital has partnered with IRCTC for marketing Railway Tickets
7. Spice Digital is a level CMMI 3 assessed company
8. Spice Digital has all data hosted in Tier 4 Data Center, in India
Action of spice money application:-
Spice Money’s Mobile App is a one stop solution for all the Banking and payment-related services that includes Money Transfer, Cash withdrawal - Mini ATM (Aadhaar based), Cash withdrawal - Micro ATM (debit card), Cash Deposit, Bill payments, Mobile Recharges, DTH, PAN cards and Digital Payments available 24*7.
Our Merchant App is highly secure and the only App available in 7 regional languages thus gives an ease of access to the regional merchants to work effectively and efficiently. 
Spice Money App Features and action:-
 Easy Merchant Registration: Simple process to become Spice Money Merchant / Agent all you need is mobile number and basic KYC documents
 Cash Withdrawal (Micro-ATM): Merchants can help customers to withdraw cash from ANY bank account (SBI, PNB, Allahabad Bank, Bank of Baroda, ICICI + 26 more banks) with Aadhaar number and fingerprint only
 Money Transfer (DMT): Merchants/Agents can take cash from customers and transfer money to any bank accounts across India to any state, instantly
 MPOS – Merchants can accept payments through credit cards/ debit cards with the help of their mobile phone and MPOS machine
 Bharat Bill Payment (BBPS): Merchant can fetch and pay utility bills of their customers which includes: Gas, Electricity, Water, Telecom(Mobile/DTH)
 Pancard Services: Merchant can create new PAN card for their customers online(Web Portal Only)
 Travel: Merchant can book Air, Train (IRCTC), bus and hotels for their customers (Web Portal Only)
 Wallet Upload: On the go wallet upload feature using digital payments like UPI, NetBanking, Credit Card, Debit Card Or cash, cheque, NEFT or RTGS.
 App Notifications: Stay updated with various attractive offers
 Transaction History: Easily track transaction history of services daily, weekly, monthly
 24*7 Availability: Provide hassle free services to customer available 24*7
 User Friendly Interface: Fast, simple and easy interface 
 Secure and Robust: Secure mobile app with multiple layers of authentication to ensure security and Most advanced Level 0 (RD service) AEPS integration from four biometric companies - Morpho, Mantra, Secugen, Precision,Evolute, Startek (ONLY app in industry)
 Available in Vernacular Language: Available in 7 language Hindi, English, Gujarati, Marathi, Kannada, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam

Pradhan Mantri Scheme

    PM Scheme Part-1.                                                                                                                                                                      (1) Jan Aushadhi Yojana (2) Awas Yojana (3) Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana (4) Beti Bachao,Beti Padhao (5) SWACHH BHARAT MISSION, (6) Namami Gange Programme, (7)Digital India, Stand up India scheme,(8) Make in India (9) Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana , (10) Gram Uday Se Bharat Uday Abhiyan,(11)  Smart City Mission Yojana (HRIDAY), (12)Kisan Vikas Patra ,(13) Soil Health Card Scheme,(14) Deendayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana, (15)Pradhan Mantri Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana,(16) UMANG Swadesh Darshan Scheme and PRASAD,(17) Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana, (18) MUDRA, (19) Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana ,(20) Sukanya Samriddhi Scheme ,(21) AMRUT , (22) Mission Indradhanush,(23) Skill India   ,(24) Grameen Kaushalya Yojana (25) Atal Pension Yojana (26) Sagar Mala project , (27) Bharatmala Project .                        Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana
Launched on 9th May 2015
Eligibility: Available to people in age group 18 to 70 years with bank account.
Premium: Rs.12 per annum.
Payment Mode: The premium will be directly autodebited by the bank from the subscribers account. This is the only mode available.
Risk Coverage: For accidental death and full disability – Rs.2 Lakh and for partial disability – Rs.1 Lakh.
Eligibility: Any person having a bank account and Aadhaar number linked to the bank account can give a simple form to the bank every year before 1st of June in order to join the scheme. Name of nominee to be given in the form.
About Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana
Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana is a government-backed accident insurance scheme in India. It was originally mentioned in the 2015 Budget speech by Finance Minister Arun Jaitley in February 2015.It was formally launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 9 May in Kolkata.As of May 2015, only 20% of India's population has any kind of insurance, this scheme aims to increase the number.
Theme of Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana
Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana is available to people between 18 and 70 years of age with bank accounts. It has an annual premium of ₹12 (19¢ US) exclusive of taxes. The GST is exempted on Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana. The amount will be automatically debited from the account. The accident insurance scheme will have one year cover from June 1 to May 31 and would be offered through banks and administered through public sector general insurance companies.
In case of accidental death or full disability, the payment to the nominee will be ₹2 lakh (US$3,100) and in case of partial Permanent disability ₹1 lakh (US$1,600). Full disability has been defined as loss of use in both eyes, hands or feet. Partial Permanent disability has been defined as loss of use in one eye, hand or foot.
This scheme will be linked to the bank accounts opened under the Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana scheme. Most of these account had zero balance initially. The government aims to reduce the number of such zero balance accounts by using this and related schemes.Now all Bank account holders can avail this facility through their net-banking service facility at any time of the year
What all is covered and for how much
Under PMSBY, the risk coverage available is Rs 2 lakh for accidental death and permanent total disability, and Rs 1 lakh for permanent partial disability. Permanent total disability is defined as total and irrecoverable loss of both eyes or loss of use of both hands or feet or loss of an eyesight and loss of use of a hand or a foot. Permanent partial disability is defined as total and irrecoverable loss of an eyesight or loss of use of a hand or foot. The cover will be in addition to any other insurance plan the subscriber has. The scheme is not a Mediclaim, i.e., there is no provision for reimbursement of hospitalisation expenses following accident, resulting in death or disability.
Important inclusions and exclusions
Accidents, any death or disability (as defined under PMSBY) resulting from natural calamities is covered under PMSBY. While death due to suicide is not covered, that from murder is covered. Partial disability without irrecoverable loss of an eyesight or loss of use of one hand or foot is not covered. Also, the family gets no insurance benefit if the subscriber commits suicide.
Where to buy the scheme from
The scheme is offered/administered through Public Sector General Insurance Companies (PSGICs) and other general insurance companies, in collaboration with participating banks. The banks are free to engage any general insurance company for implementing the scheme for their subscribers.
Enroling period
Initially, for the cover period from June 1, 2015 to May 31, 2016, the subscribers were expected to enrol and give their auto debit option by May 31, 2015, which was extended up to May 31, 2016. Subscribers who wish to continue beyond the first year have to give their consent for auto debit before May 31 for successive years. The cover is for a one-year period, starting June 1 to May 31. The option to join/pay by auto debit has to be given by May 31 of every year.
Till what period is the cover for
The accident cover of the member will terminate/be restricted in any of the following events:
(i)  On attaining age 70.
(ii)  Closure of bank account or insufficiency of balance to keep the insurance in force.
(iii) In case a member is covered through more than one account and the premium is received by the insurance company inadvertently, the insurance cover will be restricted to one account and the premium will be forfeited.
What to do in case of a claim
PMSBY covers deaths caused by an accident and confirmed by documentary evidence. In case of incidents like road, rail and similar vehicular accidents, drowning, death involving any crime, etc., the accident should be reported to police. In case of incidents like snake bite, fall from tree, etc, the cause should be supported by immediate hospital record. In case of death of the account holder, the claim can be filed by the nominee/appointee as per the enrolment form or by his legal heir/s in case there is no nomination made by him. The disability claim will be credited in the bank account of the insured bank account holder. Death claims will be remitted to the bank account of the nominee/legal heir(s).
                Jan Aushadhi Yojana
Jan Aushadhi Yojana (JAY) launched on July 1, 2015
Government of India’s Department of Pharmaceuticals has unleashed the magical homunculus.
Under this scheme, Indian citizens will have access to high quality generic medicines are prices lower that the current market price for competing products from well-known brands.
About Jan Aushadhi Yojana
Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Jan Aushadhi PariYojana Kendra(PMBJPK) is a campaign launched by the Department of Pharmaceuticals, Govt. Of India, to provide quality medicines at affordable prices to the masses through special kendras known as Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Jan Aushadhi Kendra. Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Jan Aushadhi Pariyojana Kendra (PMBJPK) have been set up to provide generic drugs, which are available at lesser prices but are equivalent in quality and efficacy as expensive branded drugs. BPPI (Bureau of Pharma Public Sector Undertakings of India) has been established under the Department of Pharmaceuticals, Govt. of India, with the support of all the CPSUs for co-coordinating procurement, supply and marketing of generic drugs through Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Jan Aushadhi Kendra.
Objective of Jan Aushadhi Yojana
1.Make quality the hallmark of medicine availability in the country, by ensuring, access to quality medicines through the CPSU supplies and through GMP Compliant manufacturers in the private sector.
2. Despite constraints of budget in the Central and State governments, extend coverage of quality generic medicines which would reduce and thereby redefine the unit cost of treatment per person.
3. Develop a model which can be replicated not only in India but also in other less developed countries in their common goal of improving quality affordable health care by improving access to quality medicines at affordable prices for all.
4. Not be just restricted to the Public Health System but be adopted with zeal and conviction by the Private Sector and thereby spread its coverage to every village of this country. The Jan Aushadhi campaign is open for all. Since generic equivalents are available for all branded drugs, the campaign will provide access to any prescription drug or Over The Counter (OTC) drug for anybody. It will be as much available to the disadvantaged sections of the society as much to the advantaged richer population segment of the country.
5. Create awareness through education and publicity so that quality is not synonymous with high price but less is more that is to say that, with a lesser price, more medicines would be available, more patients would be treated and more people will lead a healthier life.
6. Be a public program involving State governments, the Central government, Public Sector enterprises, private Sector, NGOs, Cooperative bodies and other institutions.
7. Create a demand for generic medicines By All for All by improving access to better healthcare through low treatment costs and easy availability wherever needed in All therapeutic categories.
Roadmap Of Jan Aushadhi Yojana
A list of Unbranded Generic medicines, commonly used by patients for chronic and other diseases, has been prepared. The National List of Essential Medicines, 2003 (NLEM, 2003) has also been used for this purpose. This will be considered as Common List (CL). Each State would be able to have an add-on list called the State List (SL) based on the use of any specific medicine in the area. The State Governments/NGOs/Charitable/cooperative/Government bodies will be encouraged to establish Jan Aushadhi stores in Government hospital premises or at other suitable location in all the Districts of all the States and union Territories.
Under the Jan Aushadhi campaign Jan Aushadhi stores will be opened in all the districts in the country in phases. Accordingly, States have been identified for opening of the Jan Aushadhi stores in the first phase along with the proposed nodal organizations responsible for coordinating the activities. After successful operationalisation of the program in these districts, other districts in other States would be considered in subsequent phases.
How is government selecting the stores ?
Government is not selecting any store in particular. Rather, government is encouraging people or organizations to open new stores. There are specific requirements that must be fulfilled for opening a new store. These requirements are mentioned below:
Applicants need to own a place for opening a store. The available place should have a minimum space of 120 sq. ft.
Applicants need to have a Retail Drug License and an active TIN (Tax-Payer Identification Number).
Applicants either need to have a certified pharmacist employed or they themselves should be pharmacists. If the applicants are pharmacists, they should be unemployed. If they are hiring a pharmacist, the State Council and the license registration number should be included in the application form.
Applicants need to have updated and audited account for last 3 years and they need to produce their bank statements and sales return for last 3 years.
Jan Aushadhi stores established anywhere else by private entrepreneurs / institutions / NGOs / Trusts / Charitable organizations which are linked with BPPI headquarters through internet.Financial support of 2.5 lakhs. This will be given @ 15% of monthly sales subject to a ceiling of Rs 10,000/ per month up to total limit of 1.5 lakhs. In NE states, and naxal affected areas, tribal areas, the rate of incentive will be 15% and subject to monthly ceiling of Rs.15,000. up to total limit of 2.5 lakhs.
The Applicants belonging to weaker sections like SC/ST/Differently-abled may be provided medicines worth Rs. 50,000/ - in advance within the incentive of Rs. 2.5 lakhs which will be provided in the form of 15% of monthly sales subject to a ceiling of Rs. 10,000/ - per month up to a total limit of Rs. 2.5 lakh.
20% trade margin shall be included in MRP for retailers and 10% for distributors.
Jan Aushadhi stores and Distributors will be allowed 2% of total sales or actual loss, whichever is lower, as compensation against expiry of medicines. Expired goods need not be returned to BPPI. Stocks expiring at the C and F level will entirely be the loss of BPPI.
Credit facility will be given to all Jan Aushadhi stores for 30 days against postdated cheques. Distributors will also get credit of 60 days against post dated cheques. C and F agencies will have to deposit a security amount depending upon the business.                                               Awas Yojana
Launch Date June, 2015 by Prime Minister - Narendra Modi
Estimated Time for Completion - 7 years (2022)
Primary Objective - Providing affordable houses to Indian citizens
Number of Houses to be Built - 2 crores +
Primary Target Group - Poor people of India belonging to LIG, EWS and MIG groups.
Primary Target Area LIG, EWS and MIG people of urban and rural area.
Subsidy - Aprox rs 1.2 Lakhs in Gramin and rs 2.4 Lakhs in Urban
Previous Name - Housing for All scheme and Indira Awas Yojana
About Awas Yojana
Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana aka PMAY or Housing for all is a housing scheme for all the people who belong to lower income group, economically weaker section and Middle Income Group in India. Launched in 2015, it is a housing development project from central government that will deliver 2 Cr permanent houses in urban as well as rural areas by the year 2022. The phase I of the project is already over by March 2017 and the second phase has already started. It is divided into two parts, PMAY Urban and PMAY Gramin.
Under PMAY-Urban, the houses will be constructed within the urban areas. Mainly the congested slums areas will be removed to deliver pucca or permanent houses to the inhabitants of the slums and other people from LIG ,EWS and MIG categories.In the PMAY-Gramin scheme, people from rural areas will get their pucca houses. Those who are living in rented houses or own house but needs reconstruction, can apply for this scheme.
Process to Apply
There are three modes of application under the PMAY scheme. They are offline, online and through CSCs for the urban and rural areas.
Apply Subsidy for Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana Urban [PMAY (U)]
Offline: In case of offline registration, there is a demand survey by the urban local bodies. This survey will be conducted to find and organise the list of people living under LIG category (annual income not more than Rs. 6 Lac) and EWS category (Annual Income not more than Rs. 3 Lac). Once the survey will be done, verification process will start and the registration will began accordingly.
Online process: In case of online process the applicant can register for free of cost through the pradhan mantri awas yojana ministry official website.  Fill with required information regarding the loan and applicant’s identity. Submit the form online after successfully completion of the filling up.
CSCs: Common Service Centres are being established in many places across the nation. Applicants are required to submit all their documents in these CSCs and a minimum registration fee of Rs. 25/- plus service charge for the registration under PMAY (U) scheme.
Apply for Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana Gramin [PMAY (G)]Offline: For PMAY (G) the Gramin Sabha will be in charge for the demand survey. The authorities will conduct the survey in which LIG and EWS categories will be identified to make a list of targeted population. This list should be submitted to the PMAY local authorities for further registration process.
Online: The online registration process for the PMAY (G) is same as the PMAY (U). The applicant can register through the official ministry website for PMAY without spending anything.
CSCs: As mentioned CSCs are being established everywhere to process the registration. The applicant is required to spend Rs. 25/- as a service charge and registration fee to the authorities in CSCs to process the registration.
Documents Required for PMAY application
One of the mandatory documents to be submitted for the scheme registration is Aadhaar card. If the applicant by chance does not hold Aadhaar card, then the CSCs will help the applicant to get his card with proper registration.
Another mandatory document to be submitted is the BPL certificates. People who are living in rural areas or in urban areas, belonging to EWS or LIG groups need to submit their income certificates along with their identity and address proof.
Application form of PMAY (U) and PMAY (G)
The application form is available online only. If the applicant is filling up the form through online, then he/she has to download it and submit it online after filling it up properly. Those who are registering through CSCs can get those forms in hand from the centres. The authorities take out the forms printed and deliver them along with an acknowledgement slip to the applicant against Rs. 25/-. The applicant has to submit the form in CSCs after filling it properly.
Name, contact, gender, date of birth, category, annual income, aadhaar number, BPL certificate details and such are the mandatory options in the form. Also the applicant must mention about the house loan they want such as for construction of new house or renovation of old home.                                                                                                  PM scheme Part-2 Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana    click Now                                                                         

March 27, 2020

Census 2011

Important point to Remember Census 2011-
Total Population- 1,21,08,54,977.

 Total Male-62,32,70,258. Total Female-58,75,84,719.                                          
 (i) Most Populated District-Thane ( Maharashtra).                                          

(ii) Least Populated District-Dibang Ghati ( Arunachal Pradesh).                    

(iii) District with Highest Literary Rate-Serchhip (Mizoram) 98.7%.           

(iv) District with Lowest Literary Rate-Alirajpur ( Madhya Pradesh) 37.22%.                                             
  (v) District with Highest sex Ratio-Mahe(1184 female) Puducherry.        

(vi) District with Lowest Sex Ratio-Daman(533).                                            

(vii) Male Population growth rate-17.19%.                                                    

(Viii) Female Population growth rate-18.12%.                                           
  (ix) state with maximum hindus- Himanchal Pradesh.                                

 (x) state with minimum hindus-Mizoram 3.6%.                                       

(xi) State with highest percentage of Scheduled Castes-Punjab 28.9%         

(xii) State with minimum sex Ratio- Hariyana (877)                                        

(xiii) State with maximum sex Ratio- Kerala (1084)

March 26, 2020

Five Year Plans

(A) Ist five year plan Main designer-K.N Raj 1951 to 1956 Harrald Domar Model ( based on Agriculture).       

(B)  IInd five year plan-1956-1961Nehru Mahalnobis Model( based on Industrialization).                        

(C) 3rd five year plan- 1961-1966 Gadgil Model( Economy progress). 

(D) 4th five year plan- 1969-1974 (Growth with stability and progress towards self Reliance).                     

(E) 5th five year plan-1974-1978 (based on Removal of Poverty and self Reliance).                                    

(F) 6th five year plan(Rolling plan)-1980-1985 ( more than on purpose).                                            

(G) 7th five year plan- 1985-1990 (more than one purpose)                

 (H) 8th five year plan-1992-1997 Manmohan Model ( based on Liberalization, Privatization, Globalization).                                   

 (I)  9th five year plan-1997-2002 ( Growth with Equity and Distributive Justice).                                      

 (J)10th five year plan- 2002-07(based on mainly agriculture, industries, service sector).              

(K) 11th five year (National Development Council) plan-1907-12 (based on Public Private Partnership ie. PPP model,inclusive growth).   

 (L) 12th five year plan-2012-17(Faster Sustainable and more inclusive Growth).                         

Note: maximum growth becames in 11th five year plan 12th five year plan target growth rate was 8.2% 1966-1969 called plan holiday because during this plan three annual plan made.                         

 Now 15 Years Vision Document: The first 15 year vision document come into effect from the end of 12th five year plan. It will be formulated with center objective of eradication of poverty. These will be framed keeping in mind the country's social goals and the sustainable development agenda. According to NITI Aayog, the issue was discussed at length and a decision was taken at the highest level 15 year Vision Documents divided into two parts.

Most Important points to remember in computer for banking aspirants.

What is Booting: Execution of system is called booting.                      

Types of Booting- Booting are two types- 

(i) Cold booting: To switch on the power button is called cold booting. 
(ii) Warm booting: Restart.    

Hierarchy of booting: cold,power on self test (POST),Basic input output system (BIOS),Operating system loading=Window.                                   

Types of alignment of Tab: Tab alignment are five types 

Zenix,Lynux,Unix,Disk operating system (DOS) are Operating system (OS).

 Number of letter in bar code-10.                                             
Firmware is pre installed program.      

What is POST: To relay on power and check the connectivity of the devices.                                          
What is BIOS: pre written program are called BIOS.                           

UPS(untrupted power supply): for battery backup.               

CMOS(complementary metal oxide semiconductor): To update the system clock.                    

SMPS(Switch mode power supply): To convert Alternating current to Direct current.                            

Cookies: A massage sent by web server to web browser to store user name ID,Password.               

Styllus:To movement on the touch screen,for digital handwritten documents.                                   

Light pen : it is also called Cathode ray tube pen also.                     

Scanner: To convert Hard copy (printed text) into soft copy (e-form).  

Touch screen: input device.  

Touchpad: A sensitive area through which we controlled on action on screen.                                     

Biometric Scanner: To read physical identity ( finger print,eye ratina heartbeat).                              

QR code: Quick Response code or magnetic generated code.          

Super script, Sub script are text formatting types not font style.         

In Data base whole data is called skima

Structural quarry languages (SQL) related to Data base.               

In Relation Database Table is called relation, Row is called Tuple, Column is called Attributes. In Database column is called Fields.       

Hierarchy of Database; Bit,Bite,Character,field,record,file.        

What is Database: collection of files is called database. Example- MySQL,MS access,oracle,DB2,FoxPro.                   

What is record: collection of fields is called record.                               

Types of database: PC-work locally, Centralized- Oracle- (many to one), Distributable-Google (one to many).    

Types of key: key are two types- primary key and Foreign key. Primary key: Uniquely identify a table. foreign key: use to, link to table.  

Plotter is big size printer it mainly two type- Drum( width fixed) and Flat bed plotter( length and width both fixed). 

Projector: projector is a used for enlarge any image size.              

KiOSK: it is predefine screen to convey any massage in public place. 
Monitor: it is soft copy output devices also known as VDU(visual display unit), VDT(visual display terminal), VGA(Video graphic arry). First two used in monitor and last one used in camara.                    
Some important points of Monitor- Pixel: it is a small unit of image. Resolution: Total number of pixel in a area on a screen. watermark: To insert text behind the content on the page.                                       
MACROS: To record the word in the document.                              

Worksheet is also known as spreadsheet. A spreadsheet is a software tool let's one enter, calculate,  manipulate and analyse set of date. An active cell is called current cell. Worksheet is a grid of cell made up of rows and columns.    

Workbook: Multiple worksheets can be combined under a file known as workbook. Cell: cell is a basic unit of worksheet where data can be placed.                                                    
Number of types inserting data into cell- There are three types inserting data into cell:- By double clicking on cell, by using short key F2,By typing on formula bar.                            

Views in PowerPoint : 4 type of views in PowerPoint- Normal view, slide show view, slide shorter view, notes page view.                              
 The part of operating system which loads operating system to the memory is called Kernel.      

Disclaimer is a part of utility. Antivirus is the utility software.          

Utility Software: utility is the part of system software.                          

Debugging: A process to find out the error and resolve that is called Debugging.                                

Patching: A process to resolve the errors is called patching. 

Defragmentation: a process to free unused space is called defragmentation.

March 25, 2020

Money Muling,SCORES,Option

What is Money Muling? Money Mule is a term used to describe innocent victims who are duped by fraudsters into laundering stolen or illegal money via their bank account. Whether or not the account holders is aware of it,the account is used to fraudulently transfer money to fraudsters. The use of intermediaries makes it difficult to figure out the identity of the fraudsters.                       
Money Muling Concern: It is a serious customer service issue for the regulator. Such type issue highlight the failure of the banking system and the processes to monitor newly opened accounts. According to Reserve Bank of India , while the standard and the vigor of know your Customer is quite good at the time of opening of account, there is no continuity in terms of surveillance over the transactions in these accounts. Besides, banks have some alerts and exception transaction mechanism which are mostly primitive and generally ineffective.     SCORES: Securities and Exchange board of India has launched a centralized web based complaints name SCORES in June 2011 this provides a centralized database of all investor complaints. Online forwarding of complaints to the listed companies concerned and upload of their action taken reports are done through this mechanism. It also helps investors view, track and follow up the action taken on their grievances. The online SCORES has significantly helped in reducing the processing time of complaints.                                
Types of complaints under SCORE portal: Foreign institutional investor, Merchant Banker,Credit Rating, KYC Collective investment scheme, Listed companies, ragistar and transfer agents, Brokers, stock exchanges,Depository participants, Depository, Mutual funds, Portfolio Managers.                                       

What is  Option: It is a contract that provides a right but does not impose any obligation to buy or sell a financial instrument, say a share or security. It can be exercised by the owner. Options offer the buyers, profits from favourable movement of prices say of shares or foreign exchange. There are two components of options 

(I) Call option:- The buyer has the right to purchase and the seller has to obligation to sell, a specified number of instruments say shares at a specified price during the time prior to expiry date.   

(II) Put Option: The buyer has right to sell and the seller has the obligation to buy during a particular period.

March 24, 2020

Book Building

What is book building? Book building is the process to asses demand for a particular public issue at various prices, based on which the issue is priced and sold to the investors. A number of companies in the recent past including ICICI bank and ONGC, have taken this route to raise funds from the market.                             
Who collects the order: The book runner collects orders from various investors through other participating members. Therefore he decided the yields to be offered based on the orders received and the yields quoted for them.                              
Advantages of Book building: For the investors, there is immediate allotment and early listing, with realistic pricing. The issuing company is able to realise the best terms for the issue as the size and the price is based on actual market demand. Further the company has immediate access to the funds and the risk of issue development is nonexistent and the cost of issue could be reduced.

Online Fraud Jargons

Skimming: This process involves the use of portable devices, which skim the information from the magnetic stripe on your ATM or Credit card and are installed on card-reading machines.                                                
Pharming:- This involves guiding or routing you to a site that has been hijacked by scammers or to an identical destination for collecting critical information.               

Smashing: This is phishing on mobile phones and takes it name from SMS ( short message service).    

Cloning: The process involves using stolen credit card data to crate a fake one. The data is often encoded on the magnetic stripe of the card.                  

Phishing: This is again a method of identity theft via e-mail. These spam mails act as if from a genuine agency or bank and trick you into parting with personal information like account details or passwords.                             

SBI Card notices 'vishing' Fraud attempts, alerts customers in 2016 : Vishing: This is short for voice phishing and uses recorded messages in phones purported to be form a bank or other agencies to get you to part with account details or passwords.

March 21, 2020

INSURANCE ,Reinsurance, Life Insurance, IRDA,ULIP,Annuity, Actuary,Endowment Plan,Bancassrance,

What is insurance:- Insurance is a mechanism to provide protection and cover against unforseen risks in life. It enables the individual to reach for safeguards against uncertainties in daily life. Insurance is the process of transferring future anticipated risks against economic protection in the event of disability, death or economic loss.                                                                            

An insurer or insurance carrier is selling the insurance; the policyholder is the person buying the insurance policy. The amount of money charged for a certain amount of insurance coverage is called the premium. Risk management, the practice of appraising and controlling risks has evolved as a discrete field of study and practice.                                                                                                                      The Structure of Insurance Sector:The Insurance sector in India is primarily divided into (I) Life Insurance, (II) NonLife insurance, (III) A very small segment comprising Reinsurance.                                                        

(I) Life insurance: Life insurance is an insurance cover that gives out a certain amount to the their nominated beneficiaries upon a certain event such as death of individual who is policyholder. For our convenience and better understanding it would not be wrong to state that life insurance is related to a human life. It is basically a long term investment and requires periodic payments, either monthly or quarterly or annually. The risks that are covered by Life insurance include- premature death, income during retirement, illness. The main products for the same consists of - whole life, endowment, life annuity plan and  term medical and health.                                                                                                         

(II) Non Life insurance: Non life insurance is a contract which indemnifies the policyholder against financial loss suffered by him, owing to an adverse event, against premium paid by the policyholder to the insurer.                                       

The prominent insurance covers available under this head are- 

(i) marine insurance: which relates to loss in marine adventure, 

(ii) Fire insurance: For protection against loss due to fire of policyholder's property,

 (iii) Personal accident Insurance: Covering death or disability of the policyholder from accident, 

(iv) Mother Vehicle Insurance: Which is cover against theft or damage to the policyholder's vehicle and injury or death of owner or passengers traveling in the policyholder's vehicle.                         

 (III) Reinsurance: Reinsurance is resorted to when the insurance company transfers a part of the risk to another insurer, Since the total risk amount of policyholder is too high for the insurer. The policyholder is assured of the total risk cover even though the first insurer would get the part amount reinsured from the second insurer. This is a possibility in case of high value insurance deals where one insurer is unable to bear the total risk cover.                                    

 Other information about insurance: The Indian Life Assurance Companies Act 1912, was the first statutory measure to regulate life insurance business. The consolidated Insurance Act 1938, provided for comprehensive provisions for effective control over the activities of insurers. In the year 1956, the State controlled LIC (life insurance corporation) came into existence, while in 1973, the general insurance business was nationalized however in year 2000 subsidiaries of the General Insurance Corporation were restructured as independent companies The foreign companies were allowed to ownership holding up to 26% in such companies. The number of players in life insurance is 23 and Non life insurance is 24 including ECGC ( export credit and guarantee corporation) and Agricultural insurance corporation presently. IRDA( insurance regularly and development of India) was constituted in 2000 and setup by the parliament under IRDA Act 1999. It is 10 members body with a chairman. 5 whole time members and  4 part time members. IRDA is the regular of Insurance sector.                                                                          

Insurance ombudsman: The independent authority of Ombudsman was created by the government in 1998, for quick and effective disposal of grievances of the insured customers. The powers vested in the ombudsman are for (I) conciliation and (II) passing of awards in grievances cases.                                                 

  Online Purchasing of insurance policy: It is customer centric initiative introduced by the insurance companies. The premium charged by insurance companies through online purchase of term plans have practically been halved. The distributer network is avoided in this which brings down the cost. Currently there are three options for purchasing  an insurance policy (i) From an agent (ii) From banks and (iii) Direct from the insurance company.  IRDA has issued the listing guidelines for insurance companies in 2011,Which stipulate that insurance companies after completing 10 years, can approach the capital markets for raising funds.                                                                  

  Bancassurance: Banks are now selling different financial products to enlarge their scope of activities and also to increase their earning capacity. The sale of insurance and other similar products through a bank. This can help the consumer in some situations; for example, when a bank requires life insurance for those receiving a mortgage loan the consumer could purchase the insurance directly from the bank.                                                              

 Important term related to insurance:-

 ULIP: Full name Unit linked Insurance plan. ULIP is a life insurance policy which is mix of risk cover and investment

Endowment plan: Endowment plan are long term policies having double benefit of life cover and returns.                                                                                           Money back Plan: It is both an insurance cover and savings for the future. The main feature of this plan is payment of tax free amounts of the sum assured at regular intervals during the term of the insurance policy.                                      

 Annuity: An annuity is a financial offering where the investors pays a certain quantum of funds to the insurance company and in turn receives a regular payment from the said insurance company this regular payment is called an annuity.                

Mortality Table: These tables are based on the life expectancy of the population of the country. Actuaries prepare these tables.                           

Actuary: Actuary or Actuaries are specialist in the field of assessment of risk and its calculation

March 19, 2020


What is a SWIFT? 

SWIFT is a Cooperate Organization. 

Full Name of SWIFT is Society for the World Wide Interbank Financial Telecommunication.                    

Where it is Established- SWIFT is Established in Belgium ( Brussels).       

When It is Established- established in 1973.                                                     

Head Quarter of SWIFT is LA Hulpe (Belgium) near Brussels.                         

Who Design Head Quarter of SWIFT- Designed by Ricardo Bofill Taller DeArquitectura.                                       

Other Information about SWIFT:- SWIFT is dedicated to the promotion and development of standardized global interactively for financial transactions. SWIFT uses a standardized Proprietary communications platform to facilitate the transmission of information about financial transactions. This information, including payment instructions, is securely exchangeed between financial institutions. The society operates a messaging service for financial messages, such as letter of credit, payments and securities transactions between member banks worldwide. SWIFT neither holds funds nor manages client accounts. SWIFT does not facilitate funds transfer rather it sends payment orders.


What is UPI? Full Name of UPI is Unified Payments Interface. UPI is a payment system that allows money transfer between any two bank accounts by using a Smartphone.        

Who launched UPI? UPI was launched by the RBI Governor Raghuram Rajan along with the NPCI(National Payments Corporation of India) advisor Nandan Nilekani.                        

When Launched-April- 2016. NPCI received Clearance by RBI on 24 August 2016 after this clearance NPCI became umbrella body for all payments within the country.          

UPI goes Live- on 25 August 2016.      

Other Information about UPI: UPI allows a customer to pay directly from a bank account to different merchants both online and offline without hassle of typing credit card details, IFSC code or wallet passwords. The interface went live with 21 banks in the first phase. According to NPCI the UPI application of 19 banks can be downloaded from Google play which are given here- Yes bank, Vijaya bank, UCO bank, ICICI bank, Axis bank, Andhra bank, Canara bank,Karnataka bank, DCB bank, Federal bank, South Indian bank, Punjab national bank, Union bank of India, United bank of India, Oriental bank of commerce, Bank of Maharashtra, Bhartiya Mahila Bank, Catholic Syrian bank, TJSB Sahkari Bank. IDBI Bank and RBL Bank ,Don't have UPI app yet, will allows payments through other Banks' UPI apps for their account holders. SBI and HDFC Bank are in the process of developing their own apps.

March 18, 2020

Biometric ATM

What is Biometric ATM? The ATMs which have been design to reduce the possibilities of fraud which are on the rise because of loss of cards and PINs.  By using stolen cards and PINs, cash can be easily withdrawn from ATMs but in  Biometric ATM it is not possible as the PIN for Biometric ATMs is the fingerprints of the card holder or his retina scan. These ATMs cannot be duplicated and hence prevent theft.                              

Why it is not easily available everywhere? Due to higher cost, Biometric ATMs are less used, through they are well suited to the requirements of the rural people.

Participatory Note

What is Participatory Note? P-Notes  is the economic instrument at which the Foreign Investors Institutions not enlisted with the prime regulator of a country and use this tool to lift the money by means of forward training and create financial chaos in a particular country and SEBI ( Securities Exchange and Board of India) of our India amended to stop this nonsense.

Fiscal Consolidation

What is Fiscal consolidation? It is the process at which the government undertake austerity measures to put restrictions on its economy such as delicensing of industries, disinvestment from stack etc. Our India is following under RBI, a perfect measure by Fiscal Responsibility and Budgetary Management Act 2003.

What is Basis Points

What is Basis Points:- Basis point is the increase in interest rates in percentage terms. For Example- if the interest rate increase by 25 basis points, then it means that interest rate has been increase by 0.25%. One percentage point is broken down into 100 basis points. Therefore, an increase from 1% to 2% is an increase of one percentage point or 100 basis points.

March 17, 2020


What is overdraft facility? When a bank allows the account holder to draw funds in excess of his sanctioned limit is known as overdraft facility. This is not permanent measure to enable the account holder to meet his urgent funds requirement. In another way we say An Overdraft facility allows you to write cheques or with draw cash from your current account up to  the overdraft limit approved. It can be authorized ( agreed to in advance of retrospect) OR unauthorized ( where the bank has not agreed to the overdraft either because the account holder represents too great risk to lend to in this way or because the account holder has not asked for an overdraft facility) It is short term (usually up to 12 months) standby credit facility which is usually renewable on a yearly basis. It is repayable on demand by the bank at any time. Interest is calculated on daily balance overdrawn and debited to the account monthly. The interest rate on an overdraft account is usually charged at a percentage over the Bank's prime lending rate.                    

What is prime lending rate? PLR is the the benchmark lending rate previously used by banks to price their different loans. This pricing mechanism has now been replaced by the base rate of lending.                 

Now We should know that what is base rate? Base rate is the minimum lending rate that banks can charge its customers. It is the floor rate for all loans that banks provide barring a few exceptions like loans against deposits, staff loan to bank employees and some agricultural loans. 


KCC(Kisan Credit Card):  KCC is issued by the banks to farmers to meet their cultivation needs and inputs for a period of three years. KCC introduced in August 1998 to meet the production credit requirement of the farmer on the recommendation of R.V Gupta Committee. Converted into smart card come debit card on the recommendation of TM Bashin  group.                                                  
SHGs: Full name Self help group it is introduced in 1992 by NABARD on the Recommendation of SK Kaliya committee. SHG is the village based financial intermediary of 10 to 20 local man or women from same social economic group but financial intermediation is not only the objectives of the group.                           

Lead Bank Scheme: LBS introduced in 1969 on the recommendation of Godigill and Nariman Committee According to this scheme commercial banks adopt a district and district adoption scheme under RBI is known as lead of their particular district.

March 16, 2020

DTC (Direct Tax code)

What is DTC? Full name of DTC is Direct Tax Code. DTC is replacement of Income Tax Act 1961.                                                                                              
Why DTC is replaced by Income Tax act 1961? Answer Due to loop holes, such as Income tax department will have on jurisdiction over the fraud happened outside even on Indian country purchases and sales of shares.  So By this Replacement, Government have power to minimize the menace of tax avoidance and Authority for advance ruling (AAR) is a body by government can act independently over these issues and grant permission for MNCs( Multinational Corporations) that 'transfer of shares' ( bunching of shares is legitimate or not).

March 11, 2020

Top job updater,result updater,admit card updater sites

 Top websites related to job search and other important websites related to banking which have high page authority ,domain authority so these websites are more trustful on the basis of providing information but the all websites have its own privacy policy and disclaimer that is why there is no surety that all given information of any websites including me are 100% accurate and correct information. The given link and information in this page are on the basis of web search and other resources so go any site and stay accordingly- (1)   (2)    (3) NABARD Official website (4) Reserve Bank of India Official  (5) Lic Official website (6) SBI Official website (7) IBPS Official website   (8) (9) Sarkarinaukaridaily (10) (11) (13) (14)  (15) RojgaargovWeekly  (16) (17) Jobs in USA official  (18)     (19) (20) (21) (22) latest     (23) new site  (24) Jobs international city wise,

March 09, 2020

EMV Chip

EMV Chip Card TechnologyWhat is EMV ?  EMV is a global standard for credit and debit payment cards based on chip card  technology other name of this card is chip cards or IC cards or smart cards this card store their data on integrated circuits in addition to magnetic stripes.                                        

Origin of EMV chip:- The  EMV name comes from the card schemes Europay,MasterCard and the Visa the original cards that developed it. These include Cards that must be physically inserted into a reader and contactless cards that can read  over very short time using radio frequency identification technology.   Payment cards that comply with the EMV standard are often called chip and pin.                                                                                                                  
Why it is called chip and PIN? Because these transection the PIN entry is required  to verify the customer is genuine cardholder. EMV helpful for to enable security features in debit and credit cards.                                    

Difference between EMV and Magnetic Stripe Transactions: Payment data is more secure on a chip enabled payment card than on magnetic stripe card. EMV is advancement to combat fraud and protect sensitive data in the card while data from magnetic stripe card can be easily copied. Chip technology is effective in combating counterfeit fraud with it dynamic authentication capabilities.

Digital India Project

Tagline of digital India:- Power to Empower.                                                    

Who launched digital India project:- Prime Minister Narendra Modi. 

When launched:- July 1,2015                                                                                 
where launched: Indore district of MP in two villages panchats,    

Objective of digital India:- there are thee objectives of digital India projects- (I) Infrastructure as a utility for every citizen (II) On demand Governance and Services and (III) Digital Empowerment of citizens.      

Total investment in this project:- 4.5 lakh crore.  Initiatives of Digital India:- 

DIGILocker: To minimize the uses of physical documents. Enable sharing of edocuments across agencies whenever required ,                  

eSign:-To eradicate forgery and fraudulent signature,                             

Bharat Net:-  High speed broadband connection for 2.5 lakh Gram panchayats of the country,        

MyGov app:- To encourage citizen engagement in governance,        

Scholarship Portal:- One stop solution for end-to-end  scholarship process,        

E-education:- For high-tech education using technology,             

E-Health:- fast,timely,effective economical healthcare services to all,     

Wi-Fi hotspots:- For  internet access easily BSNL has undertaken large scale deployment of Wi-Fi hotspots throughout the country,          

Next Generation Network:- BSNL looks to replace 30 years old exchanges that  means effective and easy communication services for all,  

Swach Bharat Mission:- This app would be used by people and government organizations for swach Bharat.

Bank Po/Clerk Practice Link OR Resources ( Top resources)

(1) TestZone( , www. AspirantsZone . (2)Www. AffairscloudZone .  (3)www. bankersaddazone .  (4)www. testbookzone .  (5)www. ...