July 25, 2020

Legal amount/Currency Notes/Bill of exchange/ Promissory note/Courtesy amount

  Legal amount and Courtesy amount

Legal Amount:- The amount in words is called the legal amount as per CTS(Cheque Truncation System) 2010 gudilines of RBI.

Courtesy Amount:- The amount in figure is called the courtesy amount as per CTS 2010 guidelines of RBI.

Currency Notes and Promissory Note

Currency notes being money, though full fill a number of promissory notes, are not promissory notes and have been excluded from the definition of u/s Section 4 of Negotiable Instrument Act and are governed by Indian Currency Act Section 21, Promissory note is an instrument (a) in writing, (b) containing an unconditional promise, (c) signed by maker (d) to pay certain sum of money, (e) to or to the order of a certain 'person' or the 'bearer' of the instrument.

Bill of Exchange and Promissory note made payable to bearer-

As per section 31 of RBI Act, persons other than RBI or Central Government can draw, accept, make or issue any bill of exchange or promissory note payable to bearer on demand.
Promissory note definition comes under Negotiable instrument act 1881-section 4, Bill of exchange definition comes under Section 5 of Negotiable instrument act 1881.

July 24, 2020

Fundamental Parts of Computer

Computer:- It is an input device Which process the raw data into informations.

Computer Definition:- (1) Computer is an electronic device Which works according to the instruction which is given in it.
(2) Computer is an electronic device Which process the input and gives the desired output.

          Full form of the Computer-
C- Common
O- Operating
M- Machine
P- Particularly
U- Used in
T- Trade
E- Education and
R- Research

    Characteristics of Computer-
(i) Accuracy
(ii) Speed
(iii) Storage Capacity
(iv) Input output Capacity
(v) Deligience
(vi) Versatile
        The main parts of Computer-
(i) System Unit(two types- Desktop type and Tower type)
(ii) Monitor or Visual Display Unit or Cathode Ray Tube( two types- Monochromatic and Multi-colour monitor)
(iii) Keyboard ( two types- Standard and Enhanced) 
         Keys of keyboard-
Enter key, Text Editing key, Arrow key, Modifier key, Function key, Numeric key pad,Num lock key, Shift key,Caps lock key, Esc key, Return or Enter key, Scroll lock key, Back space key,  Cursor Control keys, Home key, End Key, Page up key, Page down key, Tab key, Ctrl and Alt key, Pause key, Print Screen key, Delete key, Main keys.
(iv) Hard Disk Drive
(v) Floppy Drive
( vi) Compact Disk Drive
(vii) Mouse
(Viii) Printer( four types- Dot Matrix Printer,Line Printer and Laser Printer) 
(ix) Modem
(x) Scanner ( it is input device, Types- it is four type- Handhold, Flatbed, 3-Dimentional and Film scanner)
(xi) Central Processing Unit( three parts- Memory, Arithmetic logic unit and Control unit

      Front side of Computer:- Reset button, safty lock,Floppy disk drive, Compact Disk read only memory drive,power switch, Turbo button,Lights.

    Back side of Computer:- Serial ports, Parallel ports,Fan housing, Universal serial bus port, Power in or out Socket, Video monitor port,Key board port, Expansion Slots.
           Inner side of Computer:- Micro processer or Central Processing Unit,Read only memory Chips,Central Processing Unit support chips, Power supply Unit, Output adapter Card, Hard Disk Drive, Compact Disk read only memory drive, Real time clock, Motherboard, Random access memory chips, Empty RAM chips slot,Maths co- processer,Disk Drive control key, Expansion Slots, speaker.

July 12, 2020

Cyber security and Cybercrime,

Why Cyber Security?

Cybercrime is one of the fastest growing criminal industries in the world today, surpassing even the drugs trade in terms of profitability. 

Cyber crimes are criminal acts that are performed with the aid of a computer. Crimes that fit this category are identity theft, mischievous hacking, theft, and more.

There are many ways that you can become a victim to cybercrime, from falling for an online phishing scam to having your PC(personal computer) hacked and personal information stolen. Like all crime the best way to prevent it is to be fully aware of the dangers, so that you can take sensible precautions to reduce the chances of it happening.

Different types of Cybercrime

With so many words out there to describe different types of Cybercrime it helps if you have an idea of what each one means. Here is the list of the most commonly used terms related to cybercrime..Worms,Spyware,Trojans, Adware,Phishing Scams, Computer viruses, Identity theft, Ransomware, Brute- force-attack, Petya, DNS hijacking etc.

Petya: Petya is a family of encrypting  ransomware that was first time discovered in 2016. The malware targets Microsoft Windows based Systems, infecting the master boot record to execute a payload that encrypts a hard drives file System table and Prevent windows from booting.
It subsequently demands that the user make a payment in Bitcoin in order to regain access to the system. Variants of Petya were first seen in march 2016, which propagated via infected email attachments.

In June 2017, A new variant of Petya was used for a global Cyberattack, primarily targeting Ukraine.  The new variant propagates via the Eternal Blue exploit, which is generally believed to have been developed by the US National Security Agency and was used earlier in the  year by the WannaCry Ransomware.

Brute Force Attack: It is a Password and Cryptography attack that does not attempt to decrypt any information but Continue to try a list of different passwords, words, or letters. For Example- a simple Brute Force Attack may have a dictionary of all words or Commonly used passwords and Cycle through those words until it gains access to the account.
A more complex brute force attack involves trying every key Combination until the Correct password is found.

Incognito mode: Alternatively referred to as private browsing, In private browsing, private window. Incognito mode is a setting that prevents Internet history from being stored. For Example- when you visit any webpage, any text, pictures and cookies loaded in the page is all stored on your computer.

DNS Hijacking: It is a process in which an individual redirects quarries to a domain name server. It may be accomplished through the use of malicious software or unauthorized modification of a server.
Once the individual has control on the DNS(Domain Name server or System), they can direct others who access it to a web page that looks the same, but contains extra content such as advertisements. They may also direct uses to pages containing malware or a third party search engine.

How to prevent cybercrime crime when it happening on a personal level?
# Always make sure that you factor in the cost of the antivirus software when buying a new PC. The few bucks spent protecting yourself now will save you a lot of time and money in the future. Norton and McAfree are the biggest providers of online security.

# Keep it updated, Naver give out your information to anyone online. If an email claiming to be form your bank arrives in your inbox do not reply to the email. Phone your bank directly( face to face) to ask what they want. Your bank should never need to verify your private information via phone.

# Keep your passwords complicated and even think about changing them on a regular basis.

# Don't give out too much personal information on your social networking sites.

# Protect your children by installing antivirus software parental controls.

July 10, 2020


What is the Indian Bank Association?

IBA(Indian Bank Association) Coordinates the various important activities of the banking industry in the country. It was established in 26 September, 1946 with 22 members to meet the diverse needs of the member banks.
A change in its rules in 1990 enabled the financial services industry and other related units to join as associate members. IBA is the body which decides the wage settlements for employees of the public sector banks.

The public sector banks include 20 nationalized banks including IDBI(industrial development bank of India) bank limited and the State bank group of state bank of India and its 5 subsidiaries.

IDBI(Industrial Development Bank of India): The IDBI was established on 1st July 1964 under an act of parliament as a wholly owned subsidiary of the Reserve Bank of India. On 16th February 1976, the ownership of IDBI was transferred to the Government of India.
Headquarters of IDBI is at Mumbai.

IBPS(Institute of Banking Personnel Selection): The IBPS is an autonomous agency in India. Which started its operation in 1995 as Personnel Selection Services (PSS). In 1984, IBPS became an independent entity at behest of Reserve Bank of India and Public Sector Banks.

IRDA(Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority): IRDA is Regulator for insurance sector, The IRDA was constituted in 2000, and set up by the Parliament under the IRDA act, 1999. It is 10 member body with a chairman, 4 whole time members and 4 part time members.

Bank Po/Clerk Practice Link OR Resources ( Top resources)

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