Showing posts with label Computer Awareness. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Computer Awareness. Show all posts

July 24, 2020

Computer Fundamental

Computer:- It is an input device Which process the raw data into informations.

Computer Definition:- (1) Computer is an electronic device Which works according to the instruction which is given in it.
(2) Computer is an electronic device Which process the input and gives the desired output.

          Full form of the Computer-
C- Common
O- Operating
M- Machine
P- Particularly
U- Used in
T- Trade
E- Education and
R- Research

    Characteristics of Computer-
(i) Accuracy
(ii) Speed
(iii) Storage Capacity
(iv) Input output Capacity
(v) Deligience
(vi) Versatile
        The main parts of Computer-
(i) System Unit(two types- Desktop type and Tower type)
(ii) Monitor or Visual Display Unit or Cathode Ray Tube( two types- Monochromatic and Multi-colour monitor)
(iii) Keyboard ( two types- Standard and Enhanced) 
         Keys of keyboard-
Enter key, Text Editing key, Arrow key, Modifier key, Function key, Numeric key pad,Num lock key, Shift key,Caps lock key, Esc key, Return or Enter key, Scroll lock key, Back space key,  Cursor Control keys, Home key, End Key, Page up key, Page down key, Tab key, Ctrl and Alt key, Pause key, Print Screen key, Delete key, Main keys.
(iv) Hard Disk Drive
(v) Floppy Drive
( vi) Compact Disk Drive
(vii) Mouse
(Viii) Printer( four types- Dot Matrix Printer,Line Printer and Laser Printer) 
(ix) Modem
(x) Scanner ( it is input device, Types- it is four type- Handhold, Flatbed, 3-Dimentional and Film scanner)
(xi) Central Processing Unit( three parts- Memory, Arithmetic logic unit and Control unit

      Front side of Computer:- Reset button, safty lock,Floppy disk drive, Compact Disk read only memory drive,power switch, Turbo button,Lights.

    Back side of Computer:- Serial ports, Parallel ports,Fan housing, Universal serial bus port, Power in or out Socket, Video monitor port,Key board port, Expansion Slots.
           Inner side of Computer:- Micro processer or Central Processing Unit,Read only memory Chips,Central Processing Unit support chips, Power supply Unit, Output adapter Card, Hard Disk Drive, Compact Disk read only memory drive, Real time clock, Motherboard, Random access memory chips, Empty RAM chips slot,Maths co- processer,Disk Drive control key, Expansion Slots, speaker.

July 12, 2020

Cybercrime,Cyber security and Types of Cybercrime,

Why Cyber Security?

Cybercrime is one of the fastest growing criminal industries in the world today, surpassing even the drugs trade in terms of profitability. 

Cyber crimes are criminal acts that are performed with the aid of a computer. Crimes that fit this category are identity theft, mischievous hacking, theft, and more.

There are many ways that you can become a victim to cybercrime, from falling for an online phishing scam to having your PC(personal computer) hacked and personal information stolen. Like all crime the best way to prevent it is to be fully aware of the dangers, so that you can take sensible precautions to reduce the chances of it happening.

Different types of Cybercrime

With so many words out there to describe different types of Cybercrime it helps if you have an idea of what each one means. Here is the list of the most commonly used terms related to cybercrime..Worms,Spyware,Trojans, Adware,Phishing Scams, Computer viruses, Identity theft, Ransomware, Brute- force-attack, Petya, DNS hijacking etc.

Petya: Petya is a family of encrypting  ransomware that was first time discovered in 2016. The malware targets Microsoft Windows based Systems, infecting the master boot record to execute a payload that encrypts a hard drives file System table and Prevent windows from booting.
It subsequently demands that the user make a payment in Bitcoin in order to regain access to the system. Variants of Petya were first seen in march 2016, which propagated via infected email attachments.

In June 2017, A new variant of Petya was used for a global Cyberattack, primarily targeting Ukraine.  The new variant propagates via the Eternal Blue exploit, which is generally believed to have been developed by the US National Security Agency and was used earlier in the  year by the WannaCry Ransomware.

Brute Force Attack: It is a Password and Cryptography attack that does not attempt to decrypt any information but Continue to try a list of different passwords, words, or letters. For Example- a simple Brute Force Attack may have a dictionary of all words or Commonly used passwords and Cycle through those words until it gains access to the account.
A more complex brute force attack involves trying every key Combination until the Correct password is found.

Incognito mode: Alternatively referred to as private browsing, In private browsing, private window. Incognito mode is a setting that prevents Internet history from being stored. For Example- when you visit any webpage, any text, pictures and cookies loaded in the page is all stored on your computer.

DNS Hijacking: It is a process in which an individual redirects quarries to a domain name server. It may be accomplished through the use of malicious software or unauthorized modification of a server.
Once the individual has control on the DNS(Domain Name server or System), they can direct others who access it to a web page that looks the same, but contains extra content such as advertisements. They may also direct uses to pages containing malware or a third party search engine.

How to prevent cybercrime crime when it happening on a personal level?
# Always make sure that you factor in the cost of the antivirus software when buying a new PC. The few bucks spent protecting yourself now will save you a lot of time and money in the future. Norton and McAfree are the biggest providers of online security.

# Keep it updated, Naver give out your information to anyone online. If an email claiming to be form your bank arrives in your inbox do not reply to the email. Phone your bank directly( face to face) to ask what they want. Your bank should never need to verify your private information via phone.

# Keep your passwords complicated and even think about changing them on a regular basis.

# Don't give out too much personal information on your social networking sites.

# Protect your children by installing antivirus software parental controls.

April 18, 2020


JavaScript: it allows you to access and dynamically Control the individual properties of both HTML and CSS. JavaScript accesses the properties of an HTML document through the DOM(Document Object Model). The work of DOM is to represent all the attributes of HTML and Style Sheets to JavaScript controlYou need to only know about the DOM that JavaScript commands it accepts. As different browsers have their slightly different versions of the DOM. so they display HTML properties differently as well as access them differently. The basic object in DHTML(Dynamic Hypertext Markup Language) is a named rectangular region whose method of deceleration and JavaScript reference can differe  depending on the browser involved.                           

JavaScript Events: JavaScript is highly interactive because it is event driven. Events are actions that occur because of user interaction.   Using JavaScript, you can respond to an event using event handlers. You can attach an event handler to the HTML element for which you want to respond to when a specific event occurs. For Example, you could attach JavaScript's on Mouseover event handler to a button and specify some JavaScript to run whenever this event occurs against that button.                          

JavaScript Validation: JavaScript validation is a process that is used to check whether a user has filled in the form correctly before it's send to server. This is form validation. For Example, if your form has a box for the user to type their email address, you might want your form handler  to check that they have filled in their address before you deal with the rest of the form.

March 29, 2020

IP Address?

What is IP Address: Full name of IP address is Internet protocol address, It is an address through which a Computer is identified on a internet/Network.   No two hosts on the Internet can have the same IP address. Each IP address consists of 4 bytes i.e 32 bits defining three fields:- Class,Network ID and Host ID.                                                                                                                              Example of IP Address-  Types of IP Address: On the basis of versions presently IP Address are two type- IPv4 and IPv6 , where v denotes - Version.                                                                                                                                          Important points about IPv4: It is 32 bit (4 bytes) unique address. It has four parts and each part can have values between 0 to 255.                            CLasses of IP Address: IP Address is devided into 5 classes based on the address range. Class A,Class B,Class C , Class D ( reserved for multicasts groups) and Class E ( Reserved for future use or research and development purpose). Important points about IPv6: It is 128-bit address space. It has eight 4 Character. It is hexadecimal. IPv6 also called IPng( Internet protocol next generation). IPv6 is successor of IPv4.

March 26, 2020

Most Important points to remember in computer for banking aspirants.

What is Booting: Execution of system is called booting.                      

Types of Booting- Booting are two types- 

(i) Cold booting: To switch on the power button is called cold booting. 
(ii) Warm booting: Restart.    

Hierarchy of booting: cold,power on self test (POST),Basic input output system (BIOS),Operating system loading=Window.                                   

Types of alignment of Tab: Tab alignment are five types 

Zenix,Lynux,Unix,Disk operating system (DOS) are Operating system (OS).

 Number of letter in bar code-10.                                             
Firmware is pre installed program.      

What is POST: To relay on power and check the connectivity of the devices.                                          
What is BIOS: pre written program are called BIOS.                           

UPS(untrupted power supply): for battery backup.               

CMOS(complementary metal oxide semiconductor): To update the system clock.                    

SMPS(Switch mode power supply): To convert Alternating current to Direct current.                            

Cookies: A massage sent by web server to web browser to store user name ID,Password.               

Styllus:To movement on the touch screen,for digital handwritten documents.                                   

Light pen : it is also called Cathode ray tube pen also.                     

Scanner: To convert Hard copy (printed text) into soft copy (e-form).  

Touch screen: input device.  

Touchpad: A sensitive area through which we controlled on action on screen.                                     

Biometric Scanner: To read physical identity ( finger print,eye ratina heartbeat).                              

QR code: Quick Response code or magnetic generated code.          

Super script, Sub script are text formatting types not font style.         

In Data base whole data is called skima

Structural quarry languages (SQL) related to Data base.               

In Relation Database Table is called relation, Row is called Tuple, Column is called Attributes. In Database column is called Fields.       

Hierarchy of Database; Bit,Bite,Character,field,record,file.        

What is Database: collection of files is called database. Example- MySQL,MS access,oracle,DB2,FoxPro.                   

What is record: collection of fields is called record.                               

Types of database: PC-work locally, Centralized- Oracle- (many to one), Distributable-Google (one to many).    

Types of key: key are two types- primary key and Foreign key. Primary key: Uniquely identify a table. foreign key: use to, link to table.  

Plotter is big size printer it mainly two type- Drum( width fixed) and Flat bed plotter( length and width both fixed). 

Projector: projector is a used for enlarge any image size.              

KiOSK: it is predefine screen to convey any massage in public place. 
Monitor: it is soft copy output devices also known as VDU(visual display unit), VDT(visual display terminal), VGA(Video graphic arry). First two used in monitor and last one used in camara.                    
Some important points of Monitor- Pixel: it is a small unit of image. Resolution: Total number of pixel in a area on a screen. watermark: To insert text behind the content on the page.                                       
MACROS: To record the word in the document.                              

Worksheet is also known as spreadsheet. A spreadsheet is a software tool let's one enter, calculate,  manipulate and analyse set of date. An active cell is called current cell. Worksheet is a grid of cell made up of rows and columns.    

Workbook: Multiple worksheets can be combined under a file known as workbook. Cell: cell is a basic unit of worksheet where data can be placed.                                                    
Number of types inserting data into cell- There are three types inserting data into cell:- By double clicking on cell, by using short key F2,By typing on formula bar.                            

Views in PowerPoint : 4 type of views in PowerPoint- Normal view, slide show view, slide shorter view, notes page view.                              
 The part of operating system which loads operating system to the memory is called Kernel.      

Disclaimer is a part of utility. Antivirus is the utility software.          

Utility Software: utility is the part of system software.                          

Debugging: A process to find out the error and resolve that is called Debugging.                                

Patching: A process to resolve the errors is called patching. 

Defragmentation: a process to free unused space is called defragmentation.

March 09, 2020

EMV Chip

EMV Chip Card TechnologyWhat is EMV ?  EMV is a global standard for credit and debit payment cards based on chip card  technology other name of this card is chip cards or IC cards or smart cards this card store their data on integrated circuits in addition to magnetic stripes.                                        

Origin of EMV chip:- The  EMV name comes from the card schemes Europay,MasterCard and the Visa the original cards that developed it. These include Cards that must be physically inserted into a reader and contactless cards that can read  over very short time using radio frequency identification technology.   Payment cards that comply with the EMV standard are often called chip and pin.                                                                                                                  
Why it is called chip and PIN? Because these transection the PIN entry is required  to verify the customer is genuine cardholder. EMV helpful for to enable security features in debit and credit cards.                                    

Difference between EMV and Magnetic Stripe Transactions: Payment data is more secure on a chip enabled payment card than on magnetic stripe card. EMV is advancement to combat fraud and protect sensitive data in the card while data from magnetic stripe card can be easily copied. Chip technology is effective in combating counterfeit fraud with it dynamic authentication capabilities.

March 02, 2020

ASP/PHP/AJAX/Joomla/planing of web applications

 Chapter (1) ASP (Active Server Pages):- Introduction to Active Server Pages. What languages can you use to program in Active Server Pages?  How to install Active Server Pages?-How to install IIS on Windows 2000,How to Install IIS on Windows XP Professional. Running an Active Server Pages Web Page. How do Active Server Pages work? Basic Syntax Rules in Active Server Pages. Active Server Pages syntax- Script Dependent-Using VisualBasicScript,Using JavaScript. Variables in Active Server Pages. Active Server Pages Procedures. Active server Forms. Active Server pages Object- Active Server Pages Response object, Active Server pages Request Object,Active Server Pages Application Object, Active Server Pages Session Object, Active Server Pages Server Object, Active Server Pages Error Object.                                                                                               Chapter (2) PHP (PHP Hypertext preprocessor):- Advantages Of Using PHP( Fast,Free,Easy to Use, Versatile, Secure, Customizable, Third Party Application Support. First PHP Script. PHP Variables. Naming Conventions for PHP Variables. Operators Used in PHP- Arithmetic Operators, Assignment Operators, Comparison Operators. PHP Conditional Statements- if..else Statement,Switch Statement. Loops Used in PHP- The While Loop,The do-while Loop,The for Loop,Break Statement, The Continue Statement. Functions. Classes and Objects. PHP Forms. GET and Post Operations. PHP Cookies. PHP with Database ( My Structural Quarry Languages).                                                                                                            Chapter (3) Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX):- Introduction to Asynchronous JavaScript and XML. RIA(Rich Internet Application) Technology. AJAX is Based on open Standard. Technologies Used in AJAX. Example of AJAX. Difference Between AJAX and Conventional CGI Program. AJAX Browser Support. Steps of AJAX Operation. What is XML Http Request- XML Http Request Properties,XML Http Request Methods. AJAX and Database Operations. Client Side HTML file. Server Side PHP file. AJAX Security. Issues with AJAX.                                                             Chapter (4) Joomla:- Introduction to Joomla. Logging into Joomla. Article Manager- Overview, Creating a New Article in Joomla,Editing an Existing Article in Joomla, Hyperlinks in an Article,Uploading and Displaying Images in Joomla. Menu Manager in Joomla- Overview, Creating a Menu Item,Editing and Existing Menu Item. File Transfer Protocols (FTP) with FileZilla- Overview Using FileZilla to Transfer files,Note about File Paths.         Chapter (5) Planning of Web Application:- Technologies- Client Side Scripting or Coding,Server Side Scripting or Coding,Program Libraries. Web application Frameworks. Coding Guidelines, Web Application Lifecycle Model. Web Application Development Process. Web Application Testing. Building E-Commerce Sites. Steps Building an E-commerce Websites.

Terminology used in MS Access

MS-Access Terminology: Fields:- A field contains a single piece of information such as name, city, street address or phone number.   

Records:- A record consists of one or more fields. A student record can have Roll No,Name, Address and City as its fields. 

Tables:- A table displays records in rows and columns, much like a spreadsheet. A table group related records, such as records of all students or records of all account holders.  

Forms:- A form displays all the fields of a single record onscreen, just like a paper form, so that you can add,edit, or view a single record at a time.  

Queries:- A query let's you retrieve certain information based on your criteria such as only retrieving roll numbers and names of students who scored more than 75 percentage marks in a certain examination.          
Reports:-A report arranges your data in a certain way, such as showing all the students who have scored more than 75 percentage marks in an exam.

March 01, 2020

Computer Fundamentals and Office Tools

Chapter-(1) Introduction to Computers- Introduction, historty of computer- early computer devices(Abacus,Napier's Bones,Pascual Arithmatic Machine,Difference Engine,Analytical Engine). Parts of computer. Benefits of a computer-Accuracy,Fast Speed,Diligence, Versatility, Storage, Automation, Reliability, No Feelings.  Classification of computers- Micro Computer, Mini Computer, Mainframe Computer, Super Computer.    I-P-O Cycle.  Components of a computer. Central processing Units (CPU) - Arithmetic Logic Unit(ALU), Control Unit (CU).  Computer Memory- Primary Memory(RAM,ROM), Secondary Memory(Hard Disk,Floppy Disk).  Input Devices- Keyboard, Mouse,Track Ball,Joystick, Scanner. OutPut Devices- Monitor, Printer. Computer Software- System Software, Application Software.  Programming languages- BASIC,FORTRAN, COBOL,PASCAL, C. Application of a computer.  Computer Viruses.                                                  Chapter (2) Operating System-Windows 7- What is OS, Types of OS- GUI Operating system, Multi-user Operating system, Multiprocessing Operating system, Multitasking Operating system, Multithreating Operating system. Introduction to Windows 7. Starting Windows 7.  Working with Start Menu in windows 7. Shutting down the computer in windows 7. Using Windows Explorer- Moving a file or Folder in windows 7,Creating shortcuts in windows 7.  Working with files and Folders in windows 7 - Creating a Folders in windows 7 , Renaming a File or Folder in windows 7, Deleting a File or Folder in windows 7.  Customizing the Desktop- Changing Desktop Background, Changing Screen Resolution, Setting up a Screen Saver.  Customizing Taskbar- Move and Resize the Taskbar, Hiding Taskbar. Control Panel- Switch the Control panel View, Customizing the mouse,Setting the Clock, Installing a Printer.  Concept of Networking.  Working with Multimedia. Maintaining the computer- Disk Cleanup, Checking the Disk for Errors, Defragmenting a Disk. Chapter-(3) MS- Word 2007.  What is Microsoft office 2007?   Microsoft office 2007 Editions. Introduction to word 2007. Starting word 2007.  What's New in Word 2007.  Creating a New Documents in word 2007, Saving a New Documents in word 2007.  Closing a New Documents in word 2007. Exiting word 2007. Opening an Exiting Document in word 2007. Customizing Word 2007. Selecting the text in word 2007- Selecting text using mouse. Selecting text using keyboard.  Undo & Redo in word 2007. Moving text in word 2007. Copying text in word 2007. Formatting Text in word 2007-Applying the Bold Style, Applying the Italic Style, Changing the Font and Font size, Underlying Text. Formatting Paragraphs- adding space before or after Paragraphs, Changing the line spacing , Pratapgarh Alignment ( left,Right, Center, justify).  Tables in word 2007- Entering Text into Table, Inserting Rows or Columns in a Table, Deleting a Row or Columns from a Table, Resizing Rows and Columns, Aligning Text in cell Formatting a Table, Mail merge in word 2007. Proofing the document- Spelling and Grammar Checking, Using AutoCorrect.  Protecting the Documents. Macros in word 2007. Webpage and hyperlinks. Themes- Applying Document theme, Printing of Documents.                                         Chapter-(4) MS-Excel 2007. Introduction to Excel 2007. What's New in Excel 2007.  Opening a New workbook.  Saving the workbook. Entering Data in a Worksheet-Entering Text,Entering Numeric Data, Entering Dates.  Selection Techniques. Editing Cell Data. Copying the Data. Moving the Data. Deleting the Data. Inserting Rows and Columns in MS-Excel 2007-Inserting a Row, Inserting Column.  Working with Worksheets- Inserting a New worksheet, Renaming a Worksheet, Deleting a Worksheet.  Cell References- Relative Reference,Absolute Reference, Mixed Reference.  Using Formulas in Excel 2007. Using Functions in Excel 2007-Mathematical functions, Statistical Functions, Text Functions,Date and Time Functions, Logical Functions. Creating Charts in Excel 2007. Formatting Worksheets-Adjusting Row Height and Column Width,Hide and Unhide Rows and Columns, Adding Borders to a cell or a Range, Aligning Cell Contents, Changing the Appearance of cell Contents, Adding a Background in excel 2007,Using Format Painter,Conditional Formatting of Cells. Sorting of Data. Pivot Table. Printing the Worksheet. Lookup Functions- The lookup function,Hlookup function,Vlookup function. Data Management-Auto Filter. Subtotals.                                      Chapter (5) MS-Powerpoint 2007. Introduction to PowerPoint 2007. Starting PowerPoint. Creating a New Presentation. Saving a Presentation. Adding a New Slide to the Presentation. Different Views in PowerPoint 2007-Normal View, Slide Sorter View, Notes Page View, Slide Show View. Slide Layouts in PowerPoint 2007. Working with Text in PowerPoint 2007-Moving a Text Box in PowerPoint 2007,Resizing a Placeholder, Rotating a Text Box,Filling Colour in a text Box,Changing the Font of Text in PowerPoint 2007. Themes in PowerPoint 2007. Clipart in Presentation. Organization Charts. Slide Show View. Slide Transition. Animating Slides. Master Slides-Formatting a Slide Master,Applying a Slide Master.    Chapter (6) MS-Access 2007-Introduction to Database. Starting Microsoft access 2007. Creating a Database. Understanding Data Types. Creating a Table. Managing a Table- Opeaning a Table, Closing a Table, Renaming a Table, Deleting a Table. Adding records in a Table. Depletion Records. Searching Data using Query. Creating a Form-Using Form Wizard,Creating a Customized Form. Exporting Data to Excel 2007. Designing Reports in Access 2007.                                                                                    

Mail Merge

What is Mail Merge? Mail Merge combines content from a word document and information from a data source resulting in personalized document for multiple recipients.  Many businesses and other organizations communicate with their customers or members by means of letters, newsletters, and promotional pieces that are sent to everyone on a mailing list. The easiest way to generate a set of documents that are identical except for certain information such as the name, address, and greeting of a letters to use a process called mail merge. If you have a list of potential recipients stored in a consistent format, you can use the mail merge process to easily produce a set or personalized documents and mailing labels.        Mail Merge is the process of talking a single letter, stirring in a list of names and data, and merging everything into a final set of documents, each of which is customized and nearly personal. The mail merge process combines the static information from one document with variable information from another document as given below- Main document:- This is a document, such as letter or e-mail message, that contains the static text that will appear in all the merged documents, plus placeholders called merge fields that tell word where to insert the variable information.      Data source:- This is variable list of information that you wish change letter to letter. This information is merged with the main document to from individual customized letters.

February 29, 2020

Social Networking websites

What is Social Networking ?  Social Networking is a way for one person to meet up with other people on the Net that is not though. Some people use social networking sites for meeting new friends on the Net, other use it to find old friends. Then there are those who use it to find people who have the same interests they have this is called niche networking. When they comes to online social networking websites are commonly used these websites are known as social sites.  Social networking websites function like an online community of internet users. On social networking sites not only will you make new friends but you just might learn a things or about new cultures or new languages. There are a lot of free social networking sites each of these sites needs you to sign yourself to start using it. Example of top networking sites-,,, etc.

February 28, 2020

Types of files in a computer

A file has two parts- First is file Name and other is Filed Extension. Name is option and usually given by the user but Extension defines the file types.  Generally files are three types on the basis of Attribute file- (I) Archive file:- comes under reading/writing purpose. (II) Hidden file:- comes under hidden mode without clicking unhide you can not see it. (III) Read only file:- it can not be changed and updated.

February 25, 2020

Basics of Chatting

Chatting: Chatting is a method of talking to someone over a network in a real-time, chatting is different than e-mail in that the messages are being sent at the same time. Chatting is similar to a telephone conversation except it's text over the internet.  When you Chat with someone over a network you type into the computer instead of speaking into the telephone.  

Chatting Software: Chatting software usually splits your scree into two parts first for you and second for whoever you are chatting with.   To begin chat, a chatting software is needed to be downloaded and installed on your personal computer.  These are generically called Messenger service. Example- yahoo ! 

Chatting are three types (I) Text chatting (II) Voice chatting (III) Video chatting.  

There are few things to keep in mind while chatting-    

(I) Don't. use offensive Languages.  

(II) Avoid using all caps When sending a message in a chat room. Since this is considered ' Shouting' and a distraction to other users. 

(III) Avoid responding to another's inappropriate behaviour. This is known as ' flaming' and serves no purpose other than to exacerbate the situation.  

(IV) Guard your privacy and respect the privacy of others.  

(V) Never share personal information about yourself ( such as your real name or address ) or ask for the same from others. 

(VI) Avoid typing Lengthy Conversations.

February 24, 2020

Basics of Internet

Basics of Internet :  The Internet- also known as the Net. It is the world's largest computer Network.   Generally a computer network is a collection of interconnected computers that communicate with each other. It is not just one network. It is a network of networks where all networks freely exchange information.  The networks range from the big corporate networks to small ones used in a home network or a school to laboratory. One most thing about the Internet is that it is most open network in the world.  Millions of computer provide facilities that are available to anyone who has Internet access. Most services are free for the taking you are online. The internet is a network or computes spanning the globe. Internet is popularity known as network of networks.  This communication structure is a system connecting more than sixty million people in different countries around the world. A global web of computers, the Internet allows individuals to communicate with each other often called world wide web, the internet provides an easy and quick exchange of information and is recognized as the control tool in this information age. The Internet links are computer networks all over the world so that users can share resources and communicate with each other. The Internet is a vast interconnection of computer networks that spans the globe. It is comprised of millions of computers that connect and share massive volume of information.

January 22, 2020

What is cookie?

What is Cookies? A cookie, also known as HTTP cookie, is a small piece of data sent by a website and stored by your browser on your computer when you are browsing.Cookies are used by websites to remember whether you are logged in or not and to store the items you left in the shopping bag for you to view later. They can also be used to analyse your browsing activity and provide you recommendations based on the same the next time you visit the site. Cookies are also what enable websites to store your card data to facilitate easy payments.While you can delete or decide whether or not to enable cookies on a website, cookies are essential functions of the web that facilitate a seamless browsing experience.

January 08, 2020

What is browser or web browser?

What is webBrowser?:-A browser, also referred to as a web browser, is a software application that lets you access information on the World Wide Web. It retrieves information from parts of the web and displays it on your screen. To access a website and all the text, images and videos that are present, one needs a web browser. There are several popular web browsers available online for free download. These include Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox and Opera Web Browser.
One of the first graphical browsers that was widely used and popularised the World Wide Web and Internet is the NCSA Mosaic. 

April 07, 2019

What is xml ?

What is XML? XML: Full name Extensible markup language, it is a set of rules that structured data in a representational manner.     Extensible meaning- tags, markup meaning- collection of tags and XML tags indicating data content. It was designed to describe data and is a cross platform, hardware and software independent tool for exchanging information. It is readable by both machine and human.                                              
The first version of XML "1.0" was announced by w3c in 1998. Version 1.1 came out in early 200 

XML tree: With a tree structure you can say which children belong to which parents, which grandchildren belongs to which grandparents and many other relationships. Similarly XML also form a tree structure called XML tree.  XML documents contain a root element this element is parent of other elements. All elements can have sub(child) elements. The parent, child and subchild are used to describe the relationships between element. All elements can have text content and attributes just like in HTML.                                               
XML syntax: XML syntax refers to the rules that determine how an XML application cab be written. The XML syntax is very straight forward and the makes XML very easy to learn. 

The following elements provides good explanation of XML syntax

XML Declaration:- The XML declaration indicates that the document is written in XML and specifies which version of XML. The XML declaration, if included, must be on the first line of the document. The XML declaration can also specify the language encoding for the document. Generally XML uses UTF-8 encoding. Although the XML declaration is optional, it is recommended that you include it in your XML documents.        

Processing Instructions:- Processing instructions began less than symbol? and end with ? greater than symbol. Processing instructions are instructions for the XML processor. The instructions to the processor is to  use an external style sheet.                                                        

Root Element Opening Tag:- All XML documents must have one and only one root element. All other  elements must be nested inside this root element. In other words, the root element must contain all other elements within the document. Therefore, the first tag in the document will always be the opening tag of  the root element. The closing tag will always be at the bottom of the document.                                          

Child Element and Content:- These are the elements that are contained within the root element. Elements are usually represented by an opening and closing tag. Data and other elements reside between the opening and closing tag of an element. Elements can also contain one or more attributes. An attributes is a name/value pair that you place within an opening tag, where allows you to provide extra information about an element. These are same as you have used in HTML and XHTML.             
Root Element Closing Tag:- The last tag of the document will always be the closing tag of the root element. This is because all other elements are nested inside the root element.

hypertext markup language (html) and its tag

What is HTML:- It is hypertext markup language, it is used to create internet web pages. It is generally a collection of certain keywords called 'tags' that are helpful in writing the document to be displayed using a web browser on internet. A web browser understands and interprets the HTML tags, identifies the document which is called web page. HTML was developed by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN(lab) in Geneva.  Creating an HTML document is very simple coding HTML uses two things Notepad and web browser.         HTML Elements:(1) HTML tag: it is used to indicate that this is an HTML document. (2) head tag: It is used to indicate header section of the HTML document, it is generally use title tag. Head tag is always placed after HTML tag. (3)Title tag: It is used to indicates the title of the HTML page. It gives the document a title which is displayed on the web browser's titlebar at the top. (4) body tag: This tag contains all the text and graphics of the document with all the HTML tags that are used for control and formatting of the page. Everything inside the body tag is displayed on the web browser inside the main web browser.
Some common HTML tags(1) body tag : it contains all text and graphics of the documents with all the HTML tags that are used for control and formatting of the page.                     (2) h1......h6 heading tags: h1 defines largest heading and h6 defines lowest heading tags.            (3) paragraph tag : p tag defines a paragraph.                                          (4) br tag: This tag is used when you want to end a line but not want to start a new paragraph. br tag is empty tag doesn't contains close tag.  (5) pre tag: It is used to control over spacing and line break such as  typing a poem or displaying a programming code.                           (6) horizontal tag: It is used to create horizontal line in an HTML page.         Character formatting tags:  (1) bold tag: It displays the text in boldface. (2) italics  tag : Displays the text in italics.                                                  (3) under line tag : underlies the text inside the page.                                 (4) superscript tag: Displays the enclosed text in superscript. The superscript text is  placed above the baseline.                                             (5) subscript tag: Displays the enclosed text in subscript. The subscript text is placed below the baseline.                                             (6) font tag: It is used to add style ,color and size to the text of your page .  

March 06, 2019

What is CSS class,CSS class syntax

What is CSS class: CSS class is very useful for developers to give multiple looks an HTML with CSS, if generally CSS not able to change Font size,colour then you can use different classes called CSS class. Using classes is simple, you just need to add an extension to be the typical CSS code make sure you specify this extension in your HTML.  CSS class syntax: you can create CSS class using dot (.) Followed by class name ,after the class name enter the properties, values that you want to show  your class. class-name { property:value; }      if you want to show same class for multiple elements with different style then you use perfix the dot (.) with HTML element name.  HTML I elements name.class-name { property: value;}.   Types of CSS Class:- On the basis of CSS positioning CSS are three types- (i) Relative Positioning, (ii) Absolute Positioning and (iii) Fixed Positioning. 

March 05, 2019

What is css, CSS syntax, what is inline CSS HTML, what is external CSS, what is CSS class,CSS class syntax,

What is CSS: full name of CSS in cascading style sheets, using CSS you can control the layout of web pages,when you maintaining a large site CSS save your lots of time,  web developers  use CSS instead of html on the recommendation of W3C ( world wide web consortium.                
 Advantages of CSS: pages load faster,saves time, multiple device compatibility, compatible with future browsers.                                           

CSS syntax: the set of rule that tell the browser how to render an element called CSS syntax , CSS syntax is two types   selector and  a declaration .

 selector : selector represents the HTML element to be affected by the rule.          

Dicliaration: it represents the effect to be applied to the elements, contains property values.               

 Syntax: selector { property: value} 

Types of CSS : CSS are four types  inline CSS,embedded CSS,external CSS,and imported CSS.              More  information about CSS please click here