May 02, 2020

Foreign Currency Accounts;NOSTRO,VOSTRO,LORO

  Foreign Currency Accounts or Correspondent Bank Accounts or Currency  Accounts
Account Description
NOSTRO Account of State Bank with Citibank in NewYork in $. Also Called our account with you
VOSTRO Citibank Account with State Bank in New Delhi in Indian Rupee. Also called your account with us
LORO When PNB wants to utilize the above NOSTRO Account, for PNB it becomes LORO account. Also called their account with them.

Positions in Foreign Currency

                                                   Positions in Foreign Currency
Where no balance is receivable or payable (sale=purchase) Closed Position
Where balance is either receivable or payable (i.e. sale greater than purchase or purchase greater than sale) Open Position
where sale greater than purchase oversold position or short position
Where purchase greater than sale overbought position or Long Position
Oversold(short) position is squared by Purchase of foreign currency
If rates are increasing while squaring short position Bank incurs loss
If rates are declining while squaring short position Bank gains
Overbought or Long position is squared by Sale of foreign currency
If rates are increasing while squaring the Long position Bank gains
If rates are declining while squaring Long position Bank incurs loss
Balance in hand during day time Day Light position
Balance in hand at close of the day Overnight Position

Currency Rates; From Bankers' Point of View

                  Currency Rates;From Bankers' angle ' buy low  sell high'
Rate Description
Direct When foreign currency is fixed (say $) and Indian rupees are variable, In India Direct rates are quoted. When rupee appreciates its beneficial to the importer and when rupee depreciates it benefits the exporter
Indirect When foreign currency is variable and Indian rupee is kept as fixed unit
Buying When bank delivers rupees and gets foreign exchange (say in case of purchase of export bill or encashment of foreign currency travellers' cheques or receipt of remittance from abroad
Selling When bank delivers foreign currency and gets Indian rupees (say in case of payment of import bill or issue of foreign currency travellers' cheques or sending of remittance abroad
Spot It is cash or value today or immediately. TOM= T+1 that is rate today and deal completion by next day. Spot=T+2 (that is 48 hours)
Forward Deal today and delivery later on say 1,2,3,4,6,12 months afterwards. It can be at a premium or at a discount. If foreign currency will be available at a higher price ( that is for more rupees), it carries premium. If available at a lower price (say for lesser rupees), it is at a discount.

Currency Swap and Currency Future

Currency Swap:- A Foreign Currency Swap is an agreement to make a currency exchange between two foreign parties. The agreement Consists of swapping Principal and Interest Payments on a loan made in one currency for principal and Interest payments of loan of equal value in another Currency. The Federal Reserve system offered this type of swap to several developing countries in 2008. The World Bank first introduced Currency swaps in 1981 in an effort to obtain German marks and Swiss francs. This type of swap can be done on loans with maturities as long as 10 years. They differ from interest rates swaps because they also involve principal.                                 Currency Future:- A Currency Future also known as an FX  future or a foreign exchange future, is a futures Contract to exchange one currency for another at a specified date in the future at a price (exchange rate) that is fixed on the purchase date; see foreign exchange derivative. Typically, one of the currencies is the US dollar. The price of a future is then in terms of US dollars per unit of the other currency.   This can be different from the standard way of quoting in the Spot foreign exchange markets.  The trade unit of each Contract in then a Certain amount of other Currency, for instance €125000. Most Contracts have physical delivery, so for those held at the end of the last trading day, actual payments are made in each Currency. However most Contracts are closed out before that. Investors can close out the Contract at any time prior to the Contract's delivery date.

Bank Po/Clerk Practice Link OR Resources ( Top resources)

(1) TestZone(SmartKeeda.com) , www. AspirantsZone . (2)Www. AffairscloudZone .  (3)www. bankersaddazone .  (4)www. testbookzone .  (5)www. ...